Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVI‎ > ‎

1111. Accusative is the case most frequently used

The accusative is the case most frequently and widely used adverbially. Thus:

a. Of pronominal stems: as, yád if, when, that, etc.; tád then etc.; kím why, whether, etc.; idám now, here; adás yonder; and so on. Of like value, apparently, are the (mostly Vedic) particles kádkám and kam (?), ídcid (common at every period), smád and sumádīm and sīm (by some regarded as still possessing pronoun-value), -kīm. Compounds with íd arecéd if , néd lestédsvidkuvíd; with cidkū́cid; with -kīmnákīm and mā́kīm and ā́kīm.

b. Of noun-stems: as, nā́ma by name; súkham happily; kā́mam at will, if you please; náktam by night; ráhas secretly; oṣám quickly (V.); and so on.

c. Of adjective stems, in unlimited numbers: as, satyám truly; cirám long; pū́rvam formerly; nítyam constantly; bhū́yas more, again; viçrabdham confidently; prakāçam openly; and so on.

d. The neuter singular is the case commonly employed in this way; and it is so used especially as made from great numbers of compound adjective stems, often from such as hardly occur, or are not at all found, in adjective use. Certain of these adverbial compounds, having an indeclinable as prior member, are made by the Hindu grammarians a special class of compounds, called avyayībhāva (1313).

e. But the feminine singular also is sometimes used, especially in the so-called adverbial endings of comparison, tarām and tamām, which are attached to particles (cf. 1119), and even (473 c) to verb-forms: e. g. natarā́mkathaṁtarāmuccaistarā́mçanāistarāmjyoktamā́m. In the oldest language (RV. and AV.), the neuter instead of the feminine form of these suffixes is almost alone in use: see 1119.

f. Many adverbs of obscure form or connection are to be explained with probability as accusatives of obsolete noun or adjective stems: examples are tūṣṇī́m in silence; sāyám at evening;sākám together, with (prep.); áram or álam sufficient (in the later language used with √kṛ in the manner of a prefix: 1078 a); prāyas usually; īṣát somewhat; amnás unexpectedly; bahísoutside; míthu and mithásmúhu and múhusjā́tu, and so on. Madrík etc., and niṇík (in RV.), are perhaps contracted forms of adjectives having √ac or añc as their final (407 ff.). The presence of other roots as final members is also probable for uçádhakānuṣák and āyuṣákanuṣṭhú and suṣṭhúyugapát, etc. Compare also the forms in am beside those in ā, above, 1101 a, 1102 e, 1103 b.

g. In (Vedic) dravát quickly is to be seen a change of accent for the adverbial use (pple drávant running); and drahyát stoutly (RV., once) may be another example. The comparative and superlative suffixes (above, e) show a like change; and it is also to be recognized in the derivatives with vát (1107).