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1112. The instrumental is also often used

The instrumental is also often used with adverbial value: generally in the singular, but sometimes also in the plural. Thus:

a. Of pronominal stems: as, enā́ and ayā́káyāanā́amā́amuyā́.

b. Of noun-stems: as, kṣaṇena instantly; açeṣeṇa completely; viçeṣeṇa especially; dívā by day; diṣṭyā fortunately; sáhasā suddenly; aktubhis by night; and so on.

c. Of adjectives, both neuter (not distinguishable from masculine) and feminine: as, akhilena wholly; prāyeṇa mostly; dákṣiṇena to the south; úttareṇa to the north; ántareṇawithin; ciréṇa long; — çánāis and çánakāis slowly; uccāís on high; nīcāis below; parācāís afar; táviṣībhis mightily; and so on.

d. More doubtful cases, mostly from the older language, may be instanced as follows: tiraçcátādevátābāhúta, and sasvártā (all RV.), homonymous instrumentals from nouns indvitā́tādī́tnāīrmā́mṛṣā́vṛ́thāsácāasthā́ (?), mudhā (not V.), adhunā́ (B. and later).

e. Adverbially used instrumentals are (in the older language), oftener than any other case, distinguished from normal instrumentals by differences of form: thus, especially, by an irregular accent: as, amā́ and dívā (given above); perhaps gúhāapākā́āsayā́kuhayā́ (?); naktayā́svapnayā́samanā́adatrayā́ṛtayā́ubhayā́sumnayā́ (?);daksinā́madhyā́nīcā́prācā́uccā́paçcā́tiraçcā́vasántā; — in a few u-stems, by a y inserted before the ending, which is accented: thus, amuyā́ (given above),āçuyā́sādhuyā́raghuyā́dhṛṣṇuyā́mithuyā́; — and urviyā́ (for urvyā́) and víçvyā (properly víçvayā) are more slightly irregular.