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1119. Several of the prefixes

Several of the prefixes (as noticed above, 473–4) form comparative and superlative adjectives, by the suffixes tara and tama, or ra and ma: thus, úttara and uttamáádharaand adhamáápara and apamáávara and avamáúpara and upamá, and prathamá is doubtless of the same character; also, ántara and ántama. And accusatives of such derivative adjectives (for the most part not otherwise found in use) have the value of comparatives, and rarely superlatives, to the prefixes themselves: thus, sáṁitaṁ cit saṁtaráṁ sáṁ çiçādhi (AV.) whatever is quickened do thou still further quicken; vitaráṁ ví kramasva (RV.) stride out yet more widely; prá táṁ naya prataráṁ vásyo ácha (RV.)lead him forward still further toward advantage; úd enam uttaráṁ naya (AV.) lead him up still higher.

a. Besides those instanced, are found also nitaráṁapataráṁabhitaráṁavataráṁparātaráṁparastaráṁ. In the Brāhmaṇas and later (above, 1111 e), the feminine accusative is used instead: thus, atitarā́m and atitamāmabhitarā́manutamā́mātamā́mpratitarā́mnitarā́muttarā́mpratarā́m and pratamā́m,vitarā́msaṁtarā́m (also RV., once).