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1121. Inseparable Prefixes

Inseparable Prefixes. A small number of adverbial prefixes are found only in combination with, other elements. Thus:

a. The negative prefix a or an — an before vowels, a before consonants.

b. It is combined especially with innumerable nouns and adjectives; much more rarely, with adverbs, as akútra and ápunar (RV.), áneva (AV.), ánadhas (TB.), akasmātasakṛt; in rare cases, also with pronouns (as atadakiṁcit); and even, in the later language, now and then with verbs, as aspṛhayanti (BhP. Çiç.) they do not desirealokayati (SD.) he does not view. Now and then it is prefixed to itself: e. g. anakāmamāraanaviprayuktaanavadya (?).

c. In a very few cases, the negative a appears to be made long: thus, ā́sat non-existentā́deva godlessā́rāti enemyāçāuca impurityā́tura ill (?).

d. The independent negative adverbs,  and mā́, are only in exceptional instances used in composition: see below, 1122e.

e. The comitative prefix sa, used instead of the preposition sám, and interchangeably with sahá, before nouns and adjectives.

f. The prefix of dispraise dus ill, badly (identical with √duṣ: 225 a).

g. It is combined in the same manner as a or an. Of combinations with a verbal form, at least a single example appears to be quotable: duçcaranti (R.) behave ill.

h. The corresponding laudatory prefix su well is in general so closely accordant in its use with the preceding that it is best mentioned here, though it occurs not rarely as an independent particle in the oldest language (in RV., more than two hundred times; in the peculiar parts of AV., only fourteen times), and even occasionally later.

i. The particle su sometimes appears in B. and later before a verb-form, and considering its rapid loss of independent use in V., and the analogy of a and dus (above, b, g) it is probably at least in part to be regarded as in composition with the verb. The pada-text of AV. xix. 49. 10 reads su-ápāyati, but its testimony is of little or no value. K. has na su vijñāyete andna vāi su viduḥ, and KeU. has su veda; TB. has susámbodháyati (?); MBh. and BhP. have sūpatasthe; R. has suçakyante.

j. The exclamatory and usually depreciative prefixed forms of the interrogative pronoun (506) are most analogous with the inseparable prefixes.