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1122. Miscellaneous Adverbs

Miscellaneous Adverbs. Other words of adverbial character and office, not clearly referable to any of the classes hitherto treated, may be mentioned as follows:

a. Asseverative particles (in part, only in the older language): thus, an̄gáhántakílakhálu (rare in older language), vāívā́vá (in Brāhmaṇa language only), hihináuáha,haghasamahasmabhala.

b. Of these, hánta is a word of assent and incitement;  has won also an illative meaning, and accents the verb with which it stands in connection (595 e); sma sometimes appears to give a past meaning to a present tense (778 b); u is often combined with the final a of other particles: thus, áthoutóúpopró; but also with that of verb-forms, as dattó,vidmó. The final o thus produced is pragṛhya or uncombinable (138c). Particles of kindred value, already mentioned above, are ídkám or kamcidjā́tuevá. Some of the asseverative particles are much used in the later artificial poetry with a purely expletive value, as devices to help make out the metre (pādapūraṇa verse-fillers); so especially hahitu,sma.

c. Negative particles are: , signifying simple negation; mā́, signifying prohibition.

d. As to the construction of the verb with mā́, see above, 579. In the Veda,  (or nū́: 248 a) has also sometimes a negative meaning. For the Vedic  of comparison, see below, g, h.

e. In nahí is combined with , both elements retaining their full meaning; also with íd in néd lest. It is perhaps present in nanú and caná, but not in hiná (RV., once). In general, neither  nor mā́ is used in composition to make negative compounds, but, instead, the inseparable negative prefix a or an (1121 a): exceptions are the Vedic particles nákis andmā́kisnákīm and mā́kīm; also naciram and mā́ciramnapuṅsaka, and, in the later language, a number of others.

f. Interrogative particles are only those already given: kádkimkuvídsvidnanú, of which the last introduces an objection or expostulation.

g. Of particles of comparison have been mentioned the toneless iva, and yathā (also toneless when used in the same way). Of frequent occurrence in the oldest language is also , having (without loss of accent) the same position and value as the preceding.

h. Examples of the  of comparison are: ṛṣidvíṣa íṣuṁ ná sṛjata dvíṣam (RV.) let loose your enmity like an arrow at the enemy of the singer; váyo ná vṛkṣám (AV.) as birds to the tree; gāuró ná tṛṣitáḥ piba (RV.) drink like a thirsty buffalo. This use is generally explained as being a modification or adaptation of the negative one: thus, [although, to be sure] not [precisely] a thirsty buffalo; and so on.

i. Of particles of place, besides those already mentioned, may be noticed kvà where? (in V., always to be read kúa).

j. Particles of time are:  now (also nū́nūnám was mentioned above, 1109 a), adyá and sadyás and sadívas (RV., once) today, at once (all held to contain the element div or dyu),hyás yesterdayçvás tomorrowjyók (also related with dyu) long; púnar again.

k. Of particles of manner, besides those already mentioned, may be noticed nā́nā variously (for nānānám, its derivative, see 1109 a); sasvár (RV.) secretly.

l. In the above classifications are included all the Vedic adverbial words, and most of those of the later language: for the rest, see the dictionaries.