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1125. The adverbs by derivative form

a. The adverbs by derivative form (1097 ff.) have least of a prepositional value (exceptions are especially a few made with the suffix tas: 1098).

b. Most of the verbal prefixes (exceptions are udniparāpra; and ava and vi are almost such) have their prepositional or quasi-prepositional uses with cases; but much more widely in the older time than in the later: in the classical language the usage is mainly restricted to pratianu, and ā.

c. Most of the directive words akin with the more proper prefixes are used prepositionally: some of them — as sahavināupariantarāpurā — freely, earlier and later.

d. The case-forms used adverbially are in many instances used prepositionally also: oftenest, as was to be expected, with the genitive; but frequently, and from an early time, with the accusative; more rarely with other cases.

e. We will take up now the cases for a brief exposition, beginning with those that are least freely used.