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1127. The Instrumental

The Instrumental. The directives used with this case are almost only those which contain the associative pronominal root sa: as sahá (most frequent), sākámsārdhámsamám,samáyāsarátham; and, in the Veda, the prefix sám: as, te sumatíbhiḥ sám pátnībhir ná vṛ́ṣaṇo nasīmahi (RV.) may we be united with thy favors as men with their spouses. By substitution of the instrumental for the ablative of separation (283 a), vinā without (not Vedic) takes sometimes the instrumental; and so, in the Veda, avás down and parásbeyond, with which the ablative is also, and much more normally, construed. And ádhi, in RV., is used with the instrumental snúnā and snúbhis, where the locative would be expected.