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1129. The Accusative

The Accusative. Many of the verbal prefixes and related words take an accompanying accusative. Most naturally (since the accusative is essentially the to-case), those that express a motion or action toward anything: as abhíprátiánuúpaā́áti and ádhi in the sense of over on to, or across, beyondtirás throughantár and antarā́ when meaningbetweenpári around. Examples are: yā́ḥ pradíço abhí sū́ryo vicáṣṭe (AV.) what quarters the sun looks abroad unto; ábodhy agníḥ práty āyatī́m uṣā́sam (RV.)Agni has been awakened to meet the advancing dawn; gacchet kadācit svajanam prati (MBh.) she might go somewhither to her own people; imam prakṣyāmi nṛpatim prati (MBh.) him I will ask with reference to the king; máma cittám ánu cittébhir é ’ta (AV.) follow after my mind with your minds; é ’hy ā́ naḥ (AV.) come hither to us;úpa na é ’hy arvā́n̄ (RV.) come hither unto us; yó devó mártyāṅ áti (AV.) the god who is beyond mortals; adhiṣṭhā́ya várcasā́ ’dhy anyā́n (AV.) excelling above others in glory. Also abhítas and parítas, which have a like value with the simple abhí and páriand upári above (oftener with genitive). Less accordant with ordinary accusative constructions is the use of this case with adhasparasparasvinā, beside other cases which seem more suited to the meaning of those particles. And the same may be said of most of the adverbial case-forms with which the accusative is used. Thus, a number of instrumental of situation or direction: as yé ‘vareṇā ”dityám yé páreṇā ”dityám (TB.) those who are below the sun, those who are beyond the sun; ántareṇa yónim (ÇB.) within the womb; te hī ’dam antareṇa sarvam (AB.) for all this universe is between them; úttareṇa gā́rhapatyam (ÇB.) to the north of the householder's fire; dákṣiṇena védim (ÇB.) to the south of the sacrificial hearth; dakṣiṇena vṛkṣavāṭikām (Ç.) to the right of the orchard;nikaṣā́ yamunām (Har.) near the Yamunā. Similarly, ūrdhvam and pūrvam have an accusative object as well as an ablative; and the same is true later of ṛteAbhimukham toward has a more natural right to construction with this case.