Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVI‎ > ‎

1133. Purely of conjunctive value

Purely of conjunctive value are च ca and, and वा  or (both toneless, and never having the first place in a sentence or clause).

a. Of copulative value, along with ca, is in the older language especially utá (later it becomes a particle of more indefinite use); and ápitátastáthākíṁ ca, with other particles and combinations of particles, are used often as connective of clauses.

b. Adversative is  but (rare in the older language); also, less strongly, u (toneless).

c. Of illative value is  for (originally, and in great part at every period, asseverative only): compare above, 1122 b.

d. To ca (as well as to its compound céd) belongs occasionally the meaning if.

e. It is needless to enter into further detail with regard to those uses which may be not less properly, or more properly, called conjunctive than adverbial, of the particles already given, under the head of Adverbs.