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1140. Primary suffixes are added not only to more original

Moreover, primary suffixes are added not only to more original roots, but, generally with equal freedom, to elements which have come to wear in the language the aspect of such, by being made the basis of primary conjugation — and even, to a certain extent, to the bases of secondary conjugation, the conjugation-stems, and the bases of tense-inflection, the tense-stems.

a. The most conspicuous examples of this are the participles, present and future and perfect, which are made alike from tense and conjugation-stems of every form. The infinitives (968 ff.) attach themselves only in sporadic instances to tense-stems, and even from conjugation-stems are made but sparingly earlier; and the same is true of the gerundives.

b. General adjectives and nouns are somewhat widely made from conjugation-stems, especially from the base of causative conjugation: see below the suffixes a (1148 j, k), ā (1149 c, d),ana (1150 m), as (1151 f), ani (1159 b), u (1178 g–i), ti (1157 g), tṛ (1182 e), tnu (1196 b), snu (1194 b), uka (1180 d), āku (1181 d), ālu (1192 b), tu (1161 d).

c. From tense-stems the examples are far fewer, but not unknown: thus, from present-stems, occasional derivatives in a (1148 j), ā (1149 d, e), ana (1150 n), i (1155 d), u (1178 f), ta(1176 e), tu (1161 d), uka (1180 d), tra (1185 e), ti (1157 g), vin (or in: 1232 b, 1183 a); from stems in a s apparently of aoristic character (besides infinitives and gerundives), occasional derivatives in a (1148 j), ana (1150 j), ani (1159 b), an (1160 a), āna (1175), as (1151 c), ī (1156 b), iṣṭha (1184 a), u (1178 f), us (1154 a), tṛ (1182 e), in (1183 a).