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1143. Primary Derivatives

Form of root. The form of root to which a primary suffix is added is liable to more or less variation. Thus:

a. By far the most frequent is a strengthening change, by guṇa- or vṛddhi-increment. The former may occur under all circumstances (except, of course, where guṇa-change is in general forbidden: 235, 240): thus, véda from √vid, móda from √mud, várdha from √vṛdh; áyana from √isávana from √susáraṇa from √sṛ; and so on. But the latter is only allowed under such circumstances as leave long ā as the resulting vowel: that is to say, with non-final a, and with a final i- or u-vowel and  before a vowel: thus, nādá from √nadgrābhá from √gṛbh orgrabhvāhá from √vahnāyá from √bhāvá from √bhūkārá from √kṛ; such strengthening as would make vāida and māuda does not accompany primary derivation.

b. Strengthening in derivation does not stand in any such evident connection with accent as strengthening in conjugation; nor can any general rules be laid down as to its occurrence; it has to he pointed out in detail for each suffix. So also with other vowel-changes, which are in general accordance with those found in inflection and in the formation of tense- and mode-stems.

c. The reversion of a final palatal or h to a guttural has been already noticed (216). A final n or m is occasionally lost, as in formations already considered.

d. After a short final vowel is sometimes added a t: namely, where a root is used as stem without suffix (1147 d), and before a following y or v of van (1169), vara and varī (1171), yuonce (1165 a), and ya (1213 a). The presence of t before these suffixes appears to indicate an original secondary derivation from derivatives in ti and tu.

e. The root is sometimes reduplicated: rarely in the use without suffix (1147 c,e); oftenest before a (1148 k), i (1155 e), u (1178 d); but also before other suffixes, as ā (1149 e), ana (1150 m), vana (1170 a), van and varī (1169 d, 1171 a,b), vani (1170 b), vi (1193), vit (1193 b), ani (1159 b), in (1183 a), tnu (1196 a), ta (1176 a), ti (1157 d), tha (1163 a), tṛ (1182 b), tra (1185 f), ūka (1180 f), aka (1181 a), īka (1186 c), ma (1166 b).