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1147. Stems without suffix; Root-words

Stems without suffix; Root-words. These words and their uses have been already pretty fully considered above (323, 348 ff., 383 ff., 400, 401).

a. They are used especially (in the later language, almost solely) as finals of compounds, and have both fundamental values, as action-nouns (frequently as infinitives: 971), and as agent-nouns and adjectives (often governing an accusative: 271 e). As action-nouns, they are chiefly feminines (384; in many instances, however, they do not occur in situations that determine the gender).

b. In a small number of words, mostly of rare occurrence, the reduplicated root is used without suffix.

c. The Vedic cases are: with simple reduplication, sasyádcikítdadṛ́hdidyú and didyútjuhū́, and perhaps gán̄gā and çíçu; with intensive reduplication, -nenī́,malimlucyavīyúdh, and jógū and vánīvan (with the intensive instead of the usual radical accent). In dáridra is seen a transfer to the a-declension. Asūsū́ is probably to be understood as a compound, asū-sū́.

d. If the root end in a short vowel, a t is regularly and usually added (383f–h).

e. Examples have been given at the place just quoted. In jágat the t is added to the mutilated form of √gam reduplicated, and ṛṇayā́t (TS., once) appears to put it after a long vowel. In a single instance, çrútkarṇa (RV.) of listening ears, a stem of this class occurs as prior member of a compound.

f. Words of this form in combination with verbal prefixes are very numerous. The accent rests (as in combination of the same with other preceding elements) on the root-stem.

g. A few exceptions in point of accent occur: thus, ávasāúpastut; and, with other irregularities of form, párijriupásthauparístha.