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1150. With the suffix

अन ana. With this suffix (as with अ a) are formed innumerable derivatives, of both the principal classes of meaning, and with not infrequent specializations. The root has oftenestguṇa-strengthening, but not seldom vṛddhi instead; and in a few cases it remains unstrengthened. Derivatives of this formation are frequent from roots with prefixes, and also in composition with other elements.

a. The normal and greatly prevalent accent is upon the root-syllable, without regard to the difference of meaning; but cases occur of accented final, and a few of accented penult. The action-nouns are in general of the neuter gender. The feminine of adjectives is made either in ā or in ī (for details, see below). And a few feminine action-nouns in anā and anī occur, which may be ranked as belonging to this suffix.

1. b. With strengthened and accented root-syllable. Under this head fall, as above indicated, the great mass of forms.

c. With guṇa-strengthening: examples of action-nouns are sádana seatrákṣaṇa protectiondanā́ givingcáyana collectionvédana propertyhávana callbhójana enjoyment,káraṇa deedvárdhana increase; — of agent-nouns, tápana burningcétana visiblecódana impelling.

d. With vṛddhi-strengthening (only in such circumstances that ā remains as vowel of the radical syllable): examples are -cā́tananā́çanamā́dana, -vā́cana, -vā́sana, -vā́hanasā́dana, -spā́çanasvā́dana, -ā́yana, -yā́vana, -srāvaṇa, -pā́raṇa.

e. From roots with prefixes, the derivatives of this formation are very numerous, being exceeded in frequency only by those made with the suffix a (above, 1148 l, m). A few examples are:ākrámaṇa striding onudyā́na upgoingnidhā́na receptacleprā́ṇana expirationvimócana release and releasingsaṁgámana assembly and assembleradhivikártanacutting offavaprabhráṅçana falling away down. For other compounds of these derivatives, showing the same accent (and the same feminine stem), see the next chapter (below, 1271). A few exceptions occur: vicakṣaṇáupariçayaná, and the feminines pramandanī́ and nirdahanī́.

f. The adjectives of this formation, simple or compound, make their feminine usually in ī: thus, códanīpécanīspáraṇījámbhanīprajñā́nīprókṣaṇīsaṁgráhaṇī,abhiṣávaṇīvidháraṇī (cetanī́ is of doubtful meaning: below, i). An adjective compound, however, having a noun in ana as final member, makes its feminine in ā: thus,sūpasarpaṇā́ of easy approachṣáḍvidhānā of sextuple orderanapavācanā́ not to be ordered away.

2. The more irregular formations may be classed as follows:

g. With accent on the final: a number of agent-nouns and adjectives, as karaṇá active (against káraṇa act), kṛpaṇá miserable (against kṛpáṇa misery), tvaraṇá hastingrocanáshiningkroçaná yellingsvapaná sleepykṣayaṇá habitable.

h. These, unlike the preceding class, make their feminine in ā: e. g. tvaraṇā́spandanā́. A few feminine action-nouns in the older language have the same form: thus, açanā́asanā́,mananā́dyotanā́rodhanā́çvetanā́hasanā́ (and compare kapanā́raçanā́); those of the later language in anā (rather numerous) are doubtful as regards accent.

i. Beside these may be mentioned a few feminines in anī́, of more or less doubtful character: arṣaṇī́cetanī́ (to cétana), tapanī́ (to tápana), pṛçanī́vṛjanī́ (with vṛjána),rajanītedanī́.

j. With accent on the penult: a small number of adjectives: as turáṇa hastingdohána milkingmanána consideratebhandánā and mandána rejoicingsakṣáṇa overcoming, and perhaps vakṣáṇa carrying (the last two with aoristic s); and a still smaller number of neuter action-nouns: daṅsána great deedvṛjána enclosure, townveṣáṇa servicekṛpáṇa misery(against kṛpaṇá miserable), with the masculine kiráṇa dust.

k. The only noticed example of a feminine is in āturáṇā. And a few feminine nouns have the same form: arháṇājaráṇābarháṇābhandánāmaṅhánāmehánāvadhánā,vanánāvakṣáṇā. (And compare the anomalous masc. name uçánā: 355 a.)

l. Without strengthening of the root are made a small number of derivatives: thus (besides those already noted, kṛpáṇa and kṛpaṇávṛjána and vṛjanī́kiráṇaturáṇa), further accented examples are úraṇadhúvanapṛ́çanabhúvanavṛ́janavṛ́ṣaṇa, -súvana; and later are found sphuraṇasphuṭanaspṛhaṇa, -hnuvanalikhanarudana, etc. RV. makes denominatives from riṣaṇa-, ruvaṇa-, vipana-, huvana-.

m. Stems in ana are made also from secondary conjugation-stems: thus, from desideratives, as cikitsana (see 1038); from causatives, as hāpanabhīṣaṇa (see 1051 g); from denominatives, with great freedom, in the later language, as ākarṇanaunmūlanaçlakṣṇanacihnana; from intensives and other reduplicated stems, only can̄kramaṇajan̄gamana,jāgaranáyoyupana.

n. A few isolated cases may be further mentioned: from tense-stems, -jighraṇa, -ūrṇavana, -paçyanayacchana, -siñcana; from prepositions, antaraṇa and sámanaastamanafrom the quasi-prefix (1092 b) astam. Feminines in anā of doubtful connection are yóṣaṇā woman (beside yóṣanyoṣā, etc.) and pṛ́tanā.