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1151. Large class of neuter nouns

अस् as. By this suffix are made (usually with guṇa-strengthening of the root- vowel) especially a large class of neuter nouns, mostly abstract (action-nouns), but sometimes assuming a concrete value; and also, in the older language, a few agent-nouns and adjectives, and a considerable number of infinitives.

a. The accent in words of the first class is on the root, and in the second on the ending; and in a few instances words of the two classes having the same form are distinguished by their accent; the infinitives have for the most part the accent on the suffix.

1. b. Examples of the first and principal class are: ávas aid, favortápas warmthpráyas pleasuretéjas splendorçrávas famedóhas milkingkáras deedpráthas breadth,cétas and mánas mindcákṣas eyesáras pondvácas speech.

c. A few words of this class are of irregular formation: thus, without strengthening of the root, júvas quickness (beside jávas), úras breastmṛ́dhas contempt; and iras- (irasy-) andvipas-, and the adverbs tirásmitháshuras-, also çíras head, are to be compared; — with vṛddhi-strengthening, -vā́casvā́sasvā́has, -svādas, and, of doubtful connections, pā́jaspā́thas, and -hāyas; — perhaps with an aoristic shéṣas missile; — pī́vas contains a v apparently not radical.

d. After final ā of a root is usually inserted y before the suffix (258): thus, dhā́yas, -gā́yas. But there are in the oldest language apparent remains of a formation in which as was added directly to radical ā: thus, bhā́s and -dās (often to be pronounced as two syllables), jñā́smā́s; and -dhas and -das, from the roots dhā and .

2. e. The instances in which an agent-noun is differentiated by its accent from an action-noun are: ápas work, and apás active; yáças beauty, and yaçás beauteous; táras quickness, and tarás (VS., once) quick; távas strength, and tavás strong; dúvas worship, and duvás lively (?); máhas greatness, and mahás great; between rákṣas n. and rakṣás m., both meaning demon, and between tyájas n. abandonment (?) and tyajás m. descendant (?), the antithesis is much less clear.

f. Adjectives in ás without corresponding abstracts are: toçás bestowingyajás offeringvedhás pious, probably āhanás heady; and a few other words of isolated occurence, asveçásdhvarás. From a denominative stem is made mṛgayás wild animal (RV., once).

g. But there are also a very few cases of abstract nouns, not neuter, accented on the ending: thus, jarás old agebhiyás fear; and doubtless also havás call, and tveṣás impulse. The feminine uṣás dawn, and doṣás night, might belong either here or under the last preceding head.

h. Apparently containing a suffix as are the noun upás lap, and certain proper names: án̄girasnodhásbhalānásarcanānásnaciketas. The feminine apsarás nymph is of doubtful derivation.

i. The irregular formation of some of the words of this division will be noticed, without special remark.

3. j. The infinitives made by the suffix as have been explained above (973): they show various treatment of the root, and various accent (which last may perhaps mark a difference of gender, like that between sáhas and jarás).

4. k. The formation of derivatives in as from roots compounded with prefixes is very restricted — if, indeed, it is to be admitted at all. No infinitive in as occurs with a prefix; nor any action-noun; and the adjective combinations are in some instances evidently, and in most others apparently, possessive compounds of the noun with the prefix used adjectively: the most probable exceptions are -nyókas and víṣpardhas. As in these examples, the accent is always on the prefix.

l. Certain Vedic stems in ar may be noticed here, as more or less exchanging with stems in as, and apparently related with such. They were reported above, at 169 a.

In connection with this, the most common and important suffix ending in s, may be best treated the others, kindred in office and possibly also in origin, which end in the same sibilant.