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1155. Suffix are formed a large body of derivatives

इ i. With this suffix are formed a large body of derivatives, of all genders: adjectives and masculine agent-nouns, feminine abstracts, and a few neuters. They show a various form of the root: strong, weak, and reduplicated. Their accent is also various. Many of them have meanings much specialized; and many (including most of the neuters) are hardly to be connected with any root elsewhere demonstrable.

1. a. The feminine action-nouns are of very various form: thus, with weak root-form, rúci brightness, tvíṣi sheen; kṛṣí ploughingnṛtí dance; — with guṇa-strengthening (where possible), rópi painçocí heatvaní and saní gain; — with vṛddhi-strengthening, grā́hi seizuredhrā́ji courseājí race; from √duṣ comes dū́ṣi (compare dūṣayati, 1042 b). The variety of accent, which seems reducible to no rule, is illustrated by the examples given. The few infinitively used words of this formation (above, 975 b) have a weak root-form, with accent on the ending.

2. b. The adjectives and masculine agent-nouns exhibit tho same variety. Thus:

c. With unstrengthened root: çúci brightbhṛ́mi lively (√bhram), gṛ́bhi containerd. With unstrengthened root (or root incapable of guṇa-change): arí enemymáhi greatarcí beam,granthí knotkrīḍí playing; with vṛddhi-increment, kā́rṣijā́ni, -dhāriçā́risācísādi, -sāhi, and a few words of obscure connections: thus, drāpí mantlerāçí heap,pāṇí hand, etc. The isolated -ānaçi appears to come from the perfect-stem (788) of √.

e. With reduplicated root. This is in the older language a considerable class, of quite various form. Thus: with weak or abbreviated root, cákrijághri (√ghar), páprisásri, -amri,babhrívavríjágmi, -jájñi (√jan), -tatnijághnisásnisúṣvi, -çiçvi; and, with displacement of final ā (or its weakening to the semblance of the suffix), dadípapí,yayí (with a case or two from yayī́), -jajñidádhi; — from the ur-form of roots in changeable jáguritáturipápuri (púpuri SV.); — with simple reduplication, cíkiti,yúyudhivívici; — with strengthened reduplication, -cācalitā́tṛpidā́dhṛṣivā́vahisāsahítū́tuji and tūtujíyū́yuviyū́yudhi; and jarbhári andbámbhāri. And karkarí lute and dundubhí drum have the aspect of belonging to the same class, but are probably onomatopoetic. The accent, it will be noticed, is most often on the reduplication, but not seldom elsewhere (only once on the root). It was noticed above (271 f) that these reduplicated derivatives in i not seldom take an object in the accusative, like a present participle.

f. Formations in i from the root compounded with prefixes are not at all numerous. They are accented usually on the suffix. Examples arc: āyajívyānaçínijaghníparādadí,viṣāsahí; but also ājā́niāmúrivívavri. As compounded with other preceding words, the adjectives or agent-nouns in i are not rare, and are regularly accented on the root: see the next chapter, 1276.

g. From √dhā comes a derivative -dhi, forming many masculine compounds, with the value both of an abstract and a concrete: thus, with prefixes, antardhíuddhínidhíparidhí, etc. From √ is made in like manner ādi beginning, and from √sthāpratiṣṭhí resistance. Opinions are at variance as to whether such forms are to be regarded as made with the suffix i, displacing the radical ā, or with weakening of ā to i.

3. h. Neuter nouns in i are few, and of obscure derivation: examples are ákṣi eyeásthi bonedádhi curds, etc.