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1157. Suffix forms a large class of frequently used

 ति ti. This suffix forms a large class of frequently used feminine nouns of action; and also a few agent-nouns (masculine) and adjectives. The root has in general the same form as before the suffix त ta of the passive participle (952 ff.) — that is to say, a weak, and often a weakened or abbreviated, form.

a. The accent ought, it would appear, in analogy with that of the participle, to rest always upon the suffix; but in the recorded condition of the language it does so only in a minority of cases: namely, about fifty, against sixty cases of accent an the radical syllable, and a hundred and forty of undetermined accent; a number of words — itiṛticittitṛptipaktipuṣṭi,bhūtibhṛtivṛṣṭiçaktiçruṣṭisṛṣṭisthiti — have both accentuations.

1. b. Examples of the normal formation are: rātí giftūtí aidrītí flowstutí praisebhaktí divisionviṣṭí servicestutí praisekīrtí famepūrtí bestowalmatí thought,pītí drink (√; pple pīta), dhāutí stream (√dhāv; pple dhāuta); — and with accented root, gáti motionçā́ṁti reposedíti division (√; pple ditá), dṛ́ṣṭi sightíṣṭioffering (√yaj: pple iṣṭá), úkti speech (√vac: pple uktá), vṛ́ddhi increase.

c. The roots which form their participle in ita (956) do not have the i also before ti: thus, only gúpti, -dṛpti. A few roots having their participle in na instead of ta (957) form the abstract noun also in ni (below, 1158). And from the roots tan and ran occur tantí and ránti, beside the more regular tati and ráti; also áhanti (once; VS.) beside áhati. From roots having the form , the derivative in composition is sometimes -tti (for dāti, with loss of radical vowel: compare the participle-form -tta, above, 955 f): thus, niravatti (K.),samprátti (ÇB.), páritti (TB.), vásuttibhágattimaghátti (all RV.).

d. A few derivatives are made from reduplicated roots; their accent is various: thus, carkṛtídī́dhiti and -dī́ditijígarti, and perhaps the proper name yayā́ti; also jágdhifrom √jakṣ (233 f).

e. Derivatives from roots with prefixes are numerous, and have (as in the case of the participles in ta, and the action-nouns in tu) the accent on the prefix: examples are ánumati,abhī̀tiā́hutinírṛtivyā̀ptisáṁgati. The only exceptions noticed are āsaktí and āsutí, and abhiṣṭí (beside abhíṣṭi). In other combinations than with prefixes, the accentuation is in general the same: see the next chapter (1274).

2. f. The adjectives and agent-nouns — which, as masculines, are to be connected with these rather than with the feminine abstracts — are very few: thus, pū́ti putridváṣṭi eager,dhū́ti shakerjñātí relativepattí footmanpáti master; and a few others, of more or less dubious character. The accent is various, as in the other class.

3. g. A few words show the suffix ti preceded by various vowels, union- or stem-vowels. The ordinary intermediate i of the ta-participle etc. is seen in sánitiujhiti, -gṛhīti (ī, as usual with this root: 900 b), paṭhitibhaṇiti; and with them may be mentioned the adjective ṛ́jīti, the proper names turvī́ti and dabhī́ti, and snī́hitī and snéhitī, notwithstanding their long final. With ati are made a few derivatives, variously accented: thus, the action-nouns aṅhatídṛçatípakṣatímithatívasatíramátivratáti,amáti and ámati, -dhrajati; and the agent-words aratíkhalatívṛkátirámatidahati. In some of these is to be seen with probability a stem-vowel, as also in jánayatiand rasayati (and RV. has gopayátya). The grammarians' method of representing a root by its 3d sing. pres. indic., declining this as a ti-stem, begins in the older language: e. g.étivant (TB.), kṣetivant (AB.), yajati and juhoti and dadāti (S.), nandati (MBh.). The feminine yúvati young, maiden is of isolated character.

h. In some of the words instanced in the last paragraph, ti is perhaps applied as a secondary suffix. A kindred character belongs to it in the numeral derivatives from pronominal roots,kátitátiyáti, and from numerals, as daçativiṅçatíṣaṣṭí, etc., with pan̄ktí (from páñca); in padāti; and in addhātí, from the particle addhā́.