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1168. The numerous derivatives made with this suffix

मन् man. The numerous derivatives made with this suffix are almost only action-nouns. The great majority of them are neuter, and accented on the root-syllable; a much smaller number are masculine, and accented on the suffix. The few agent-words are, if nouns, masculine, and have the latter accent: in several instances, a neuter and a masculine, of the one and the other value and accent, stand side by side. The root has in general the guṇa-strengthening.

1. a. Examples of regularly formed neuters are: kárman actionjánman birthnā́man namevártman trackvéçman dwellinghóman sacrifice, -dyótman splendor.

b. Examples of masculine abstracts are: omán favorojmán strengthjemán conquestsvādmán sweetnesshemán impulse.

c. Corresponding neuter action-nouns and masculine agent-nouns are: bráhman worship and brahmán priest; dā́man gift and dāmán giver; dhárman rule and dharmán orderer; sádmanseat and sadmán sitter. But óman friend stands in the contrary relation to omán m. favor. Very few other agent-nouns occur; and all, except brahmán, are of rare occurrence.

d. On the other hand, jeman and varṣman and svādman (and variman) have the difference of gender and accent without a corresponding difference of meaning.

e. The noun áçman stone, though masculine, is accented on the radical syllable; and two or three other questionable cases of the same kind occur.

f. The derivatives in man used as infinitives (974) have for the most part the accent of neuters: the only exception is vidmáne.

g. A few words, of either class, have an irregular root-form: thus, údmanūṣmán or uṣmanbhū́man earthbhūmán abundancesyū́mansīmánbhujmánvidmánçíkmançuṣman,sidhman; and kā́rṣmanbhā́rmançā́kman.

h. Derivatives in man from roots with prefixes are not numerous. They are usually accented on the prefix, whether action-nouns or adjectives: thus, prábharman forthbringingpráyámandeparture; ánuvartman following after: the exceptions, vijā́manprativartmánvisarmán, are perhaps of possessive formation.

2. i. The same suffix, though only with its abstract-making value, has in a number of cases before it a union-vowel, i or ī; and imán comes to be used as a secondary suffix, forming abstract nouns (masculine) from a considerable number of adjectives.

j. The neuters in iman and īman are primary formations, belonging almost only to the older language: thus, jánimandhariman (M.), váriman (beside varimán, as noticed above); anddárīmandhárīmanpárīman (and páreman SV., once), bhárīmanvárīmansárīmanstárīmansávīman, and hávīman. Those in īman are hardly met with outside the Rig-Veda.

k. The masculines in imán are in the oldest language less frequent than the neuters just described: they are tániman (?), jarimánprathimánmahimánvarimán (beside the equivalent váriman and várīman), varṣimán (beside the equivalent várṣman and varṣmán), harimán, and drāghimán (VS.) beside drāghmán (V.B.). Some of these, as well as of the derivatives in simple man, attach themselves in meaning, or in form also, to adjectives, to which they seem the accompanying abstracts: compare the similar treatment of the primary comparatives and superlatives (above, 468): such are pāpmán (to pāpápā́pīyas etc.); drāghmán etc. (to dīrghádrā́ghīyas, etc.); váriman etc. (to urúvárīyas, etc.);práthiman (to pṛthúpráthiṣṭha); harimán (to hári or hárita); várṣman etc. (to várṣīyas etc.); svā́dman etc. (to svādúsvā́dīyas, etc.). Then in the Brāhmaṇa language are found further examples: thus, dhūmrimán (TS. K.), draḍhimán (MS. K.: to dṛdhádráḍhīyas, etc.), aṇimán (ÇB.; and áṇiman n. bit), sthemánstháviman (n. big piece),taruṇiman (K.), paruṣiman (AB.), abaliman (ChU.), lohitiman (KB.); and still later such as laghimankṛṣṇimanpūrṇimanmadhurimançoṇiman, etc., etc.