Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVII‎ > ‎

1169. Suffix are made almost only agent-words

वन् van. By this suffix are made almost only agent-words, adjectives and nouns, the latter chiefly masculines. The root is unstrengthened, and to a short final vowel is added a त् tbefore the suffix. The accent is almost always on the root, both in the simple words and in their compounds.

a. The insertion of t is an intimation that the words of this form are originally made by the addition of an to derivatives in u and tu; yet van has the present value of an integral suffix in the language, and must be treated as such.

b. Examples of the usual formation are: masc. yájvan offeringdrúhvan harmingçákvan capable, -ríkvan leaving, -jítvan conqueringsútvan pressingkṛ́tvan active, -gátvan(like -gat, -gatyagoingsátvan (√sanwarrior; neut. párvan jointdhánvan bow. Irregular, with strengthened root, are árvan courser, -yāvan (? AV.) driving off; and, with accent on the suffix, dṛván (? VS.) and vidván (? AV.).

c. Examples from roots with prefixes (which are not rare) are: atītvan excellingupahásvan revilersambhṛ́tvan collecting; and perhaps vivásvan shining: abhísatvan is a compound with governing preposition (1310). For the compounds with other elements, which, except in special cases, have the same accent, see below, 1277.

d. The stems muṣīván robber and sanítvan (each RV., once) are the only ones with a union-vowel, and are perhaps better regarded as secondary derivatives — of which a few are made with this suffix: see below, 1234. From a reduplicated root are made rárāvan and cikitván (and possibly vivásvan).

e. Action-nouns made with the suffix van are only the infinitival words mentioned at 974 — unless bhurváṇi (RV., once) is to be added, as locative of bhurván.

f. The feminines corresponding to adjectives in van are not made (apparently) directly from this suffix, but from vara, and end in varī; see below, 1171 b.