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1176. Use of this suffix in forming participles

त ta. The use of this suffix in forming participles directly from the root, or from a conjugational (not a tense) stem, was explained above, 952–6. The participles thus made are in part intransitive, but in great part passive in value (like those made by the two preceding suffixes, but in much larger measure, and more decidedly).

a. A few general adjectives, or nouns with concrete meaning, are adaptations of this participle. Examples are: tṛṣṭá roughçītá colddṛḍhá (for dṝḍhá: 224 a) firm; dūtá messenger,sūtá charioteer; ṛtá rightgḥṛtá gheejātá kinddyūtá gamblingnṛttá dancejīvitá lifecaritá behaviorsmita smile. The adjective tigitá (RV.) sharp shows anomalous reversion of palatal to guttural before the i (216 d). Vāvā́ta dear is a single example from a reduplicated root.

b. Doubtless after the example and model of participles from denominative stems (of which, however, no instances are quotable from the Veda — unless bhāmita RV.), derivatives in itaare in the later language made directly from noun and adjective-stems, having the meaning of endowed with, affected by, made to be, and the like (compare the similar English formation ined, as hornedbarefootedbluecoated). Examples are rathita furnished with a chariotduḥkhita painedkusumita flowereddurbalita weakenedniḥsaṁçayita indubitable, etc. etc.

c. A few words ending in ta are accented on the radical syllable, and their relation to the participial derivatives is very doubtful: such are ásta homemárta mortalvā́ta wind; and with them may be mentioned gárta high seatnákta nighthásta handVratá is commonly viewed as containing a suffix ta, but it doubtless comes from √vṛt (vrat-á, like tradá,vrajá) and means originally course.

d. Several adjectives denoting color end in ita, but are hardly connectible with roots of kindred meaning: thus, palitá grayásita blackróhita and lóhita redhárita green; akin with them are éta variegatedçyetá white. The feminines of these stems are in part irregular: thus, énī and çyénīróhiṇī and lóhinī, and háriṇī (but the corresponding masc.háriṇa also occurs); and ásiknīpáliknī, and háriknī.

e. A small number of adjectives in the older language ending in ata are not to be separated from the participial words in ta, although their specific meaning is in part gerundive. They are:pacatá cookeddarçatá and paçyata seen, to be seen, worth seeing; and so yajatáharyatábharatá. The y of paçyata and haryatá indicates pretty plainly that the a also is that of a present tense-stem. Rajatá silvery is of more obscure relation to √raj color; párvata mountain must be secondary.