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1177. Use of the suffix na in forming from certain roots

न na (and इन ina, उन una). The use of the suffix न na in forming from certain roots participles equivalent to those in त ta, either alongside the latter or instead of them, was explained above, at 957.

a. With the same suffix are made a number of general adjectives, and of nouns of various gender (fem. in ). The accent is on the suffix or on the root. A few examples are: uṣṇá hotçunáfortunateáçna ravenousçvítna white; masc., praçná questionyajñá offeringghṛṇá heatvárṇa colorsvápna sleep; neut., parṇá wingrátna jewel (?); fem. tṛ́ṣṇa thirst,yācn̄ā́ supplication. But many of the stems ending in na are not readily connectible with roots. An antithesis of accent is seen in kárṇa ear and karṇá eared.

b. The few words ending in ina are of doubtful connection, but may be mentioned here: thus, aminá violentvṛjiná crookeddákṣiṇa rightdráviṇa propertydruhiṇaçreṣiṇa,hariṇá; and kanī́na may be added.

c. The words ending in una are of various meaning and accent, like those in ana: they are árjunakarúṇa, -cetúnatáruṇadāruṇádharúṇanarúṇapíçunamithuná,yatúnavayúnavaruṇaçalúna, and the feminine yamúnā; and bhrūṇá may be added.

d. These are all the proper participial endings of the language. The gerundives, later and earlier, are in the main evident secondary formations, and will be treated under the head of secondary derivation.

We take up now the other suffixes forming agent-nouns and adjectives, beginning with those which have more or less a participial value.