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1178. Suffix are made a considerable body of derivatives

उ u. With this suffix are made a considerable body of derivatives, of very various character — adjectives, and agent-nouns of all genders, with different treatment of the root, and with different accent. It is especially used with certain conjugational stems, desiderative (particularly later) and denominative (mainly earlier), making adjectives with the value of present participles; and in such use it wins in part the aspect of a secondary suffix.

a. The root has oftenest a weak (or weakened) form; but it is sometimes vriddhied; least often (when capable of guṇa), it has the guṇa-strengthening — all without any apparent connection with either accent or meaning or gender. After final radical ā is usually added y (258) before the suffix. A few derivatives are made from the reduplicated root. But many words ending in u are not readily, or not at all, connectible with roots; examples will be given especially of those that have an obvious etymology.

b. Examples of ordinary adjectives are: urú wideṛjú straightpṛthú broadmṛdú softsādhú goodsvādú sweettápu hotvásu good; jāyú conqueringdārú bursting; çayú lying,réku empty; dhāyú thirstypāyú protecting. Final ā appears to be lost before the suffix in -sthu (suṣṭhúanuṣṭhú), and perhaps in , -gu (agregú), and -khu (ākhú).

c. Examples of nouns are: masc., aṅçú rayripú deceivervāyú wind-godásu lifemánu man, Manu; fem., íṣu (also masc.) arrowsíndhu (also masc.) rivertanū́ or tanú body;neut., kṣú food.

d. Derivatives from reduplicated roots are: cikitújágmujigyújijñusiṣṇu, -tatnu (unless this is made with nu or tnu), didyu (?), dadruyáyu or yayú and yíyu (with final ālost), pípru (proper name), -dīdhayu; and títaübabhrú, -raru (aráru), malimlú (?) have the aspect of being similar formations.

e. A few derivatives are made from roots with prefixes, with various accentuation: for example, upāyú on-comingpramayú going to destructionviklíndu a certain disease, abhī́çurein (director)sáṁvasu dwelling together.

f. From tense-stems, apparently, are made tanyú thunderingbhindú splitting, -vindu finding, and (with aoristic sdákṣu and dhákṣu (all RV.).

g. Participial adjectives in ú from desiderative "roots" (stems with loss of their final a) are sufficiently numerous in the ancient language (RV. has more than a dozen of them, AV. not quite so many) to show that the formation was already a regular one, extensible at will; and later such adjectives may be made from every desiderative. Examples (older) are: ditsúdipsú,cikitsútitikṣúpipīṣumumukṣúiyakṣúçiçlikṣú; with prefix, abhidipsú; with anomalous accent, didṛ́kṣu. These adjectives, both earlier and later, may take an object in the accusative (271 a).

h. A few similar adjectives are made in the older language from causatives: thus, dhārayú (persistent), bhājayúbhāvayúmaṅhayúmandayúçramayú; and mṛgayú from the caus.-denom. mṛgáya.

i. Much more numerous, however, are such formations from the more proper denominatives, especially in the oldest language (RV. has toward eighty of them; AV. only a quarter as many, including six or eight which are not found in RV.; and they are still rarer in the Brāhmaṇas, and hardly met with later). In a majority of cases, personal verbal forms from the same denominative stem are in use: thus, for example, to aghāyúarātīyúṛjūyúcaraṇyúmanasyúsaniṣyúuruṣyúsaparyú; in others, only the present participle in yánt, or the abstract noun in yā́ (1149 d), or nothing at all. A few are made upon denominative stems from pronouns: thus, tvāyú (beside tvāyánt and tvāyā́), yuvayú or yuvāyúasmayú,svayú, and the more anomalous ahaṁyú and kiṁyú. Especially where no other denominative forms accompany the adjective, this has often the aspect of being made directly from the noun with the suffix yu, either with a meaning of seeking or desiring, or with a more general adjective sense: thus, yavayú seeking grainvarāhayú boar-huntingstanasyú desiring the breast; ūrṇāyú woolenyuvanyú youthfulbhīmayú terrible. And so the "secondary suffix yu" wins a degree of standing and application as one forming derivative adjectives (as inahaṁyú and kiṁyú, above, and doubtless some others, even of the RV. words). In three RV. cases, the final as of a noun-stem is even changed to o before it: namely, aṅhoyúduvoyú(and duvoyā́; beside duvasyú), áskṛdhoyuj. The words in yu do not show in the Veda resolution into iu (except dhāsiús AV., once).