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1180. Meaning and construction

उक uka. With this suffix are made derivatives having the meaning and construction (271 g) of a present participle. The root is strengthened, and has the accent.

a. The derivatives in uka are hardly known in the Veda; but they become frequent in the Brāhmaṇas, of whose language they are a marked characteristic (about sixty different stems occur there); and they are found occasionally in the older language. In all probability, they are originally and properly obtained by adding the secondary suffix ka (1222) to a derivative in u; but they have gained fully the character of primary formations, and in only an instance or two is there found in actual use an u-word from which they should be made.

b. The root is only so far strengthened that the radical syllable is a heavy (79) one; and it has the accent, whether the derivative is made from a simple root or from one with prefix.

c. Examples, from the Brāhmaṇa language, are: vā́dukanā́çukaupakrā́mukaprapā́dukaupasthāyuka (258), vyāyukavédukabhā́vukakṣódhukahā́ruka,várṣukasamárdhukadáṅçukaālambukaçikṣuka (GB.: RV. has çikṣú), pramā́yuka (ṢB. has pramāyu).

d. Exceptions as regards root-form are: nirmā́rguka (with vṛddhi-strengthening, as is usual with this root: 627), -kasukaṛdhnuka (from a tense-stem; beside árdhuka). AV. accentssáṁkasuka (ÇB. has saṁkásuka) and víkasuka; RV. has sānuká (which is its only example of the formation, if it be one; AV. has also ghā́tuka from √han, and ápramāyuka);vasuká (TS. et al.) is probably of another character. Açanāyuka (PB. et al.) is the only example noticed from a conjugation-stem.

e. Of later occurrence are a few words whose relation to the others is more or less doubtful: kārmuka and dhārmukatsārukatarkukanāndukapādukāpecukabhikṣuka,lāṣukasedukahiṇḍukahreṣuka. Of these, only lāṣuka appears like a true continuer of the formation; several are pretty clearly secondary derivatives.

f. A formation in ūka (a suffix of like origin, perhaps, with uka) may be mentioned here: namely, indhūkamajjūka, and, from plicated roots, jāgarū́ka wakefuljañjapūka (later)mutteringdandaçū́ka bitingyāyajū́ka sacrificing muchvāvadūka (later) talkative; salalū́ka is questionable.