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1181. In the preceding case

अक aka. Here, as in the preceding case, we doubtless have a suffix made by secondary addition of क ka to a derivative in अ a; but it has, for the same reason as the other, a right to be mentioned here. Its free use in the manner of a primary suffix is of still later date than that of uka; it has very few examples in the older language.

a. In RV. is found (besides pāvaká, which has a different accent, and which, as the metre shows, is really pavāka) only sā́yaka missile; AV. adds pī́yaka and vádhaka, and VS.abhikróçaka. But in the later language, such derivatives are common, more usually with raising of the root-syllable by strengthening to heavy quantity: thus, nāyakadāyaka (258),pācakagrāhakabodhakajāgaraka; but also janakakhanaka. They are declared by the grammarians to have the accent on the radical syllable. They often occur in copulative composition with gerundives of the same root: thus, bhakṣyabhakṣaka eatable and eatervācyavācaka designated and designation, and so on.

b. That the derivatives in aka sometimes take an accusative object was pointed out above (271 c).

c. The corresponding feminine is made sometimes in akā or in akī, but more usually in ikā: thus, nāyikā (with nāyakā), pācikābodhikā; compare secondary aka, below, 1222.

d. Derivatives in āka are made from a few roots: thus, jalpākabhikṣāka; but very few occur in the older language: thus, pavāka (above, a), nabhākasmayā́kajáhāka (?), -calākapatākā. With āku is made in RV. mṛḍayā́ku, from the causative stem: pṛ́dāku and the proper name íkṣvāku are of obscure connection.

e. Derivatives in ika and īka will be treated below, in connection with those in ka (1186 c).