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1183. Another suffix which has assumed a primary aspect

इन् in. This is another suffix which has assumed a primary aspect and use, while yet evidently identical in real character with the frequent secondary suffix of the same form denoting possession (below, 1230).

a. How far it had gained a primary value in the early language is not easy to determine. Most of the words in in occurring in RV. and AV. are explainable as possessives; in many the other value is possible, and in a few it is distinctly suggested: thus, kevalādín, bhadravādín, nitodín, āçārāiṣín, ánāmin, vivyādhín; from a tense-stem, -açnuvin, -paçyin (late); with aoristic s, -sakṣín; and, with reduplication, niyayínvadāvadin. As the examples indicate, composition, both with prefixes and with other elements, is frequent; and, in all cases alike, the accent is on the suffix.

b. Later, the primary employment is unquestionable, and examples of it, chiefly in composition, are frequent. The radical syllable is usually strengthened, a medial a being sometimes lengthened and sometimes remaining unchanged. Thus, satyavādin truth-speakingabhibhāṣin addressingmanohārin soul-winning. In bhāvin has established itself a prevailingly future meaning, about to be.

c. The use of an accusative object with words in in was noticed above (271 b).