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1185. Suffix are formed a few adjectives

त्र tra. With this suffix are formed a few adjectives, and a considerable number of nouns, mostly neuter, and often having a specialized meaning, as signifying the means or instrument of the action expressed by the root. The latter has usually the guṇa-strengthening, but sometimes remains unchanged. The accent is various, but more often on the radical syllable.

a. Here, as in certain other cases above, we have doubtless a suffix originally secondary, made by adding a to the primary tṛ or tar (1182); but its use is in great part that of a primary suffix.

b. Examples of neuter nouns are: gā́tra limbpáttra wingpā́tra cupyóktra bondvástra garmentçrótra ear; astrá missilestotrá song of praisepotrá vesel; of more general meaning, dáttra giftkṣétra fieldmū́tra urinehotrá sacrifice. The words accented on the final have often an abstract meaning: thus, kṣatrá authorityrāṣṭrá kingdom,çāstrá doctrinesattrá sacrificial session (also jñā́tra knowledge).

c. Masculines are: dáṅṣṭra tuskmántra prayerattrá (or atrá: 232) devourerúṣṭra buffalo, camel, and a few of questionable etymology, as mitrá friendputrá sonvṛtrá foe.Mitrá and vṛtrá are sometimes neuters even in the Veda, and mitra comes later to be regularly of that gender.

d. Feminines (in trā) are: áṣṭrā goadmā́trā measurehótrā sacrifice (beside hotrá), daṅṣṭrā (later, for dáṅṣṭra); nāṣṭrā́ destroyer.

e. Not seldom, a "union-vowel" appears before the suffix; but this is not usually the equivalent of the union-vowel used with tṛ (above, 1182 a). For the words in itra have the accent on i: thus, arítra (áritra AV., once) impelling, oarkhanítra shovelpavítra sievejanítra birth-placesanítra gift; and so -avitraaçítracarítra, -taritradhamitra,dhavítrabhavítrabharítravāditra (with causative root-strengthening), vahitra: the combination ítra has almost won the character of an independent suffix. The preceding vowel is also in a few cases a (sometimes apparently of the present-stem): thus, yájatra venerablekṛntátra shredgāyatrá (f. -trī́song, -damatrapátatra wing; but alsoámatra violentvádhatra deadly weapon; and varatrā́ f. strapTárutra overcoming corresponds to tarutṛ́Nákṣatra asterism is of very doubtful etymology. Saṁskṛtatrá(RV., once) seems of secondary formation.

f. The words still used as adjectives in tra are mostly such as have union-vowels before the suffix. A single example from a reduplicated root is johū́tra crying out.

g. A word or two in tri and tru may be added here, as perhaps of kindred formation with those in tra: thus, áttri devouringarcátri beamingrā́tri or rā́trī night; çátru(çáttru: 232) enemy.