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1203. Changes of the stem

Changes of the stem. The stem to which the suffix is added is liable to certain changes of form.

a. Before a suffix beginning with a vowel or with y (which in this respect is treated as if it were i), final a- and i-vowels are regularly lost altogether, while a final u-vowel has the guṇa-strengthening and becomes av and o and āu (all of rare occurrence) are treated in accordance with usual euphonic rule.

b. An u-vowel also sometimes remains unstrengthened: see 1208 e.

c. A final n is variously treated, being sometimes retained, and sometimes lost, even along with a preceding a; and sometimes an a is lost, while the n remains: thus, vṛṣaṇvant, vṛṣaṇa, vṛṣa, vrṛṣatva, vṛṣṇya, from vṛṣan. Of a stem ending in ant, the weak form, in at, is regularly taken: thus, vāivasvata (vivasvant).

d. In general, the masculine form of a primitive stem is that from which a further secondary derivative is made. But there are not very rare cases in which the feminine is taken instead; examples are satītva, bhāryātva, pranītātvá, bhāratīvant, rakṣāvant, priyāvant. On the other hand, a final long vowel — ī, much more rarely ā — generally of a feminine stem, is sometimes shortened in derivation: thus, yājyàvant, praçākhavant, goṣátama, vaçátamā, sadhanitvá, jaratikā, annādítamā (cf. 471 b),rohinitvá (TB.; -nītvá ÇB.), pṛhivitvá, pratipatnivat, sárasvativant.

e. As was pointed out above (111 c, d), the combination of a secondary suffix with a stem is sometimes made according to the rules of external combination. Such cases are pointed out under the suffixes īya (1215 e), ka (1222 m), maya (1225 a), min (1231 b), vin (1232 c), vant (1233 i), van (1234 c), mant (1235 f), tva (1239 c), taya (1245 a), tya (1245 c), tana(1245 i).