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1204. Most frequent change in secondary derivation

The most frequent change in secondary derivation is the vṛddhi-strengthening of an initial syllable of the stem to which a suffix is added.

a. The strengthened syllable may be of any character: radical, of a prefix, or of the first member of a compound: thus, āçviná (açvín), sāumyá (sóma), pā́rthiva (pṛthivī́), āmitrá(amítra), sā́mrājya (samrā́j), sāúkṛtya (sukṛtá), māitrāvaruṇá (mitrā́váruṇā), āuccāiḥçravasá (uccāíḥçravas). As to the accompanying accent, see the next paragraph.

b. If a stem begins with a consonant followed by y or v, the semivowel is sometimes vriddhied, as if it were i or u, and the resulting āi or āu has y or v further added before the succeeding vowel.

c. This is most frequent where the y or v belongs to a prefix — as ni, vi, su — altered before a following initial vowel: thus, nāiyāyika from nyāya (as if niyāya), vāiyaçvá fromvyàçva (as if viyaçva), sāúvaçvya from sváçva (as if suvaçva); but it occurs also in other cases, as sāuvará from sváraçāuva from çvan, against svāyambhuva(svayambhū), and so on. AV. has irregularly kāveraká from kúvera (as if from kvéra, without the euphonic y inserted).

d. This strengthening takes place especially, and very often, before the suffixes a and ya; also regularly before i, āyana, eya (with ineya), and later īya; before the compound akaand ika, and later aki; and, in single sporadic examples before, na, ena, ra, and tva (?): see these various suffixes below.

e. Sometimes an unstrengthened word is prefixed to one thus strengthened, as if the composition were made after instead of before the strengthening: e. g. indradāivatya having Indra as divinity (instead of āindradevatya), caramaçāirṣika with head to the westjīvalāukika belonging to the world of the livingantarbhāuma within the earthsomārāudra, gurulāghava (cf. tāmasaṁ guṇalakṣaṇam M. xii. 35). But especially when the first word is of numeral value: as çatáçārada of a hundred yearspañcaçāradī́ya, trisāṁvatsara, bahuvārṣika, aṣṭavārṣika, anekavarṣasāhasra, daçasāhasra, trisāhasrī, tripāuruṣa, caturādhyāyī or -yikā of four chapters, etc. etc.

f. More often, both members of a compound word have the initial strengthening: e. g. sāumapāuṣṇá, kāúrupāñcāla, cāturvāidya, āihalāukika, āikabhāutika, trāisṭubjāgata, yājurvāidika. Such cases are not rare.

g. The guṇa-strengthening (except of a final u-vowel: 1203 a) is only in the rarest cases an accompaniment of secondary derivation. Exceptions are dvayá and trayá and náva (1200 i),bheṣajá and devá (1209 j), dróna (1223 g), çekhara (1226 a).