Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVII‎ > ‎

1208. From nouns or from adjectives having a noun-value

अ a. With this suffix are made an immensely large class of derivatives, from nouns or from adjectives having a noun-value. Such derivatives are primarily and especially adjectives, denoting having a relation or connection (of the most various kind) with that denoted by the more primitive word. But they are also freely used substantively: the masculine and feminine as appellatives, the neuter, especially and frequently, as abstract. Often they have a patronymic or gentile value.

a. The regular and greatly prevailing formation is that which is accompanied with vṛddhi-strengthening of the first syllable of the primitive word, simple or compound. Examples of this formation are:

b. From primitives ending in consonants: with the usual shift of accent, āyasá of metal (áyas), mānasá relating to the mind (mánas), sāumanasá friendliness (sumánas), brāhmaṇápriest (bráhman), hāimavatá from the Himalaya (himávant), ān̄girasá of the Angiras family (án̄giras); hā́stina elephantine (hastín), mā́ruta pertaining to the Maruts(marút); — with accent thrown forward from the final upon the suffix, çāradá autumnalvāirājá relating to the virā́j, pāuṣṇá belonging to Pūshán; gāirikṣitá son of Girikshít;— with accent unchanged, mā́nuṣa descendant of Mánus.

c. The suffix is added (as above instanced) to the middle stem-form of stems in vant; it is added to the weakest in mā́ghona and vā́rtraghna; the ending in remains unchanged; an usually does the same, but sometimes loses its a, as in pāuṣṇá, trāivṛṣṇá, dāçarājñá; and sometimes its n, as in brāhmá, āukṣá, bārhatsāma.

d. From primitives in jāítra victorious (jetṛ́ or jétṛ conqueror), tvāṣṭrá relating to Tváshtarsāvitrá descendant of the sun (savitṛ́), āúdbhetra, pāitra.

e. From primitives in u: usually with guṇa-strengthening of the u, as vāsavá relating to the Vásusārtavá concerning the seasons (ṛtú), dānavá child of Dānu (dā́nu), sāindhaváfrom the Indus (síndhu); — but sometimes without, as mā́dhva full of sweets (mádhu), pārçva side (párçu rib), pāidvá belonging to Pedútā́nva of the body (tanū́), yā́dva of Yádu.

f. From primitives in i and ī, which vowels are supplanted by the added suffix: pā́rthiva earthly (pṛthivī́), sārasvatá of the Sárasvatīāindrāgná belonging to Indra and Agni(indrāgnī́); pā́n̄kta five-fold (pan̄ktí), nāirṛtá belonging to Nírṛtipārthuraçmá of Pṛthuraçmipāçupatá of Paçupáti.

g. From primitives in ā, which in like manner disappears: yāmuná of the Yamúnāsāraghá honey etc. (sarághā bee), kānīná natural child (kanī́nā girl).

h. A large number (more than all the rest together) from primitives in a, of which the final is replaced by the suffix: for example, with the usual shift of accent, āmitrá inimical (amítraenemy), vāruṇá of Váruṇavāiçvadevá belonging to all the gods (viçvádeva), nāirhastá handlessness (nírhasta), vāiçvadevá descendant of Vyàçva; gā́rdabha asinine(gardabhá), dāíva divine (devá), mā́dhyaṁdina meridional (madhyáṁdina), pāútra grandchild (putrá son), sāúbhaga good fortune (subhága), vā́dhryaçva of Vadhryaçvá's race; with unchanged accent (comparatively few), vāsantá vernal (vasantá spring), māitrá Mitrá'sātithigvá of Atithigvá's racedāívodāsa Dívodāsa's. In a few instances, ya is replaced by the suffix: thus, sāura, pāuṣá, yājñavalka.

i. The derivatives of this last form are sometimes regarded as made by internal change, without added suffix. Considering, however, that other final vowels are supplanted by this suffix, thata disappears as stem-final also before various other suffixes of secondary derivation, and that no examples of derivation without suffix are quotable from primitives of any other final than a, it seems far too violent to assume here a deviation from the whole course of Indo-European word-making.

j. Adjectives of this formation make their feminines in ī (see 332 a).