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1209. The derivatives made by adding a

The derivatives made by adding अ a without vṛddhi-change of the initial syllable are not numerous, and are in considerable part, doubtless, of inorganic make, results of the transfer to an a-declension of words of other finals.

a. A number of examples of stems in a made by transfer were noticed above (399). The cases of such transition occur most frequently in composition (1315): thus, further, apa- (for ap orāp water), -ṛca, -nara, etc.; from stems in an, -aha, -vṛṣa, etc., but also -ahna and -vṛṣṇa and vṛ́ṣaṇa; from stems in i, -an̄gula, -rātra, etc.; from the weakest forms of añc-stems (407) uccá, nīcá, parācá, etc.

b. Also occurring especially in composition, yet likewise as simple words often enough to have an independent aspect, are derivatives in a from nouns in as (rarely is, us): thus, for example, tamasá, rajasá, payasá, brahmavarcasá, sarvavedasá, devāinasá, paruṣá, tryāyuṣá, and probably mánuṣa.

c. Similar derivatives from adjectives in in are reckoned by the grammarians as made with the suffix ina: thus, malina pollutedparameṣṭhína etc. (see 441 b).

d. A number of words formed with the so-called suffix anta are evident transfers from stems in ant. A few of them are found even from the earliest period: thus, pā́nta draughtçvāntá(?), vasantá springhemantá winterveçantá etc. tankjīvantī́ a certain healing plant; and others occur later, as jayanta, taranta, madhumanta, etc. They are said to be accented on the final.

e. From añc-stems (407) are made a few nouns ending in k-a: thus, ánūka, ápāka, upā́ka, prátīka, parāká, etc.

f. From stems in hotrá, netrá, neṣṭrá, potrá, praçāstrá, etc., from titles of priests; also dhātrá, bhrātrá, etc.

g. Other scattering cases are: savidyutá, āvyuṣá, vī́rudha, kákuda, kakubhá, açúṣa, bhūmyá, sakhyá, ádhipatya, jāspatyá, araṭvá, pānḍvá.

h. The Vedic gerundives in tva (tua), made by addition of a to abstract noun-stems in tu, have been already (966 a) fully given.

i. Trayá and dvayá come with guna-strengthening from numeral stems; náva new in like manner from  now; and ántara apparently from antár.

j. Bheṣajá medicine is from bhiṣáj healer, with guṇa-change; and probably devá heavenly, divine, god, in like manner from div sky, heaven (there is no "root div shine" in the language).