Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVII‎ > ‎

1212. Derivatives in ya without initial

Derivatives in य ya without initial vṛddhi-strengthening are usually adjectives, much less often (neuter, or, in या , feminine) abstract nouns. They are made from every variety of primitive, and are very numerous (in Veda, three or four times as many as the preceding class).

a. The general mass of these words may be best divided according to their accent, into: 1. Words retaining the accent of the primitive; 2. Words with retracted accent; 3. Words with acute (); 4. Words with circumflexed  (ía). Finally may be considered the words, gerundives and action-nouns, which have the aspect of primary derivatives.

1. b. Examples of derivatives in ya retaining the accent of their primitives are: áçvya equine (áçva), án̄gya of the limbs (án̄ga), múkhya foremost (múkha mouth), ávya ovine (ávi),gávya bovine (), víçya of the people (víç), dúrya of the door (dúr), nárya manly (nṛ́), vṛ́ṣṇya virile (vṛ́ṣan), svarā́jya autocracy (svarā́j), suvī́rya wealth in retainers(suvī́ra), viçvájanya of all menviçvádevya of all the gods (viçvádeva), mayū́raçepya peacock-tailed.

c. In the last words, and in a few others, the ya appears to be used (like ka, 1222 h: cf. 1212 m) as a suffix simply helping to make a possessive compound: and so further suhástya(beside the equivalent suhásta), mádhuhastya, dáçamāsya, miçrádhānya, anyódarya, samānodarya.

2. d. Examples with retraction of the accent to the first syllable (as in derivation with vṛddhi-increment) are: káṇṭhya guttural (kaṇṭhá), skándhya humeral (skandhá), vrátya of a ceremony (vratá), méghya in the clouds (meghá), pítrya of the Fathers (pitṛ́), prátijanya adverse (pratijaná). Hiraṇyáya of gold (híraṇya), is anomalous both in drawing the accent forward and in retaining the final a of the primitive; and gavyáya and avyáya (also ávyaya) are to be compared with it as to formation.

3. e. Examples with acute accent on the suffix are: divyá heavenly (dív), satyá true (sánt), vyāghryá tigrine (vyāghrá), kavyá wise (kaví), grāmyá of the village (grā́ma), somyárelating to the sómaanenasyá sinlessness (anenás), adakṣiṇyá not fit for dákṣiṇā.

4. f. Of derivatives ending in circumflexed  (which in the Veda are considerably more numerous than all the three preceding classes together), examples are as follows:

g. From consonant-stems: viçyà of the clan (RV.: víç), hṛdyá of the heart (hṛ́d), vidyutyà of the lightning (vidyút), rājanyà of the royal class (rā́jan), doṣaṇyà of the arm(doṣán), çīrṣaṇyà of the head (çīrṣán), karmaṇyà active (kárman), dhanvanyà of the plain (dhánvan), namasyà reverend (námas), tvacasyà cuticular (tvácas), barhiṣyà of barhísāyuṣyà giving life (ā́yus), bhasadyà of the buttocks (bhasád), prācyà eastern (prā́ñc), etc. Of exceptional formation is aryamyà intimate (aryamán), with which doubtless belong sātmya (sātman) and sākṣya (sākṣin).

h. From u-stems: hanavyà of the jaws (hánu), vāyavya belonging to Vāyúpaçavyà relating to rattle (paçú), iṣavyà relating to arrows (íṣu), madhavyà of the sweet (mádhu),apsavyà of the waters (apsú lo.), rajjavyà of rope (rájju); çaravyā̀ f. arrow (çáru, do.); and there may be added nāvyà navigable (especially in fem., nāvyā̀ navigable stream:nāú boat). The RV. has prāçavyà to be partaken of (pra+√), without any corresponding noun prāçu; and also ūrjavyà rich in nourishment (ūrj), without any intermediate ūrju.

i. Under this head belong, as was pointed out above (964), the so-called gerundives in tavyà, as made by the addition of  to the infinitive noun in tu. They are wholly wanting in the oldest language, and hardly found in later Vedic, although still later tavya wins the value of a primary suffix, and makes numerous verbal derivatives.

j. From i- and ī-stems hardly any examples are to be quoted. VS. has dundubhyà from dundubhí.

k. From a-stems: svargyà heavenly (svargá), devatyà relating to a deity (devátā), prapathyà guiding (prapathá), budhnyà fundamental (budhná), jaghanyà hindmost(jaghána), varuṇyà Váruna'svīryà might (vīrá), udaryà abdominal (udára), utsyà of the fountain (útsa); and from ā-stems, urvaryà of cultivated land (urvárā), svāhyàrelating to the exclamation svā́hā.

l. The circumflexed  is more generally resolved (into ía) than the other forms of the suffix: thus, in RV. it is never to be read as ya after a heavy syllable ending with a consonant; and even after a light one it becomes ía in more than three quarters of the examples.

m. There are a few cases in which  appears to be used to help make a compound with governing preposition (next chapter, 1310: of. 1212 c): thus, apikakṣyà about the arm-pit,upapakṣyà upon the sidesudāpyà up-stream; and perhaps upatṛṇyà lying in the grass (occurs only in voc.). But, with other accent, ánvāntrya through the entrailsúpamāsya in each monthabhinabhyá up to the cloudsantaḥparçavyá between the ribsádhigartya on the chariot sent; of unknown accent, adhihastya, anupṛṣṭhya, anunāsikya, anuvaṅçya.