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1213. Primary derivatives from the beginning

The derivatives in य ya as to which it may be questioned whether they are not, a least in part, primary derivatives from the beginning, are especially the gerundives, together with action-nouns coincident with these in form; in the later language, the gerundive-formation (above, 963) comes to be practically a primary one.

a. In RV. occur about forty instances of gerundives in ya, of tolerably accordant form: the root usually unstrengthened (but cétya, bhávya, -hávya, márjya, yódhya; also -mā́dya, -vā́cya, bhāvyá); the accent on the radical syllable when the word is simple, or compounded with prepositions: thus, praçásya, upasádya, vihávya (but usually on the final after the negative prefix: thus, anāpyá, anapavṛjyá) — exceptions are only bhāvyá and the doubtful ākāyyà; the ya resolved into ia in the very great majority of occurrences; a final short vowel followed by t (in -ítya, -kṛtya, -çrútya, -stútya, and the reduplicated carkṛ́tya, beside carkṛ́ti: not in návya and -hávya), and ā changed to e (in -deya only). If regarded as secondary, they might be made with ya, in accordance with other formations by this suffix, in part from the root-noun, as anukṛ́t-ya, in part from derivatives ina, as bhāvyá (from bhāva).

b. The AV. has a somewhat smaller number (about twenty-five) of words of a like formation; but also a considerable group (fifteen) of derivatives in  with the same value: thus, for example,ādyà eatablekāryà to be donesamāpyà to be obtainedatitāryà to be overpassednīvibhāryà to be carried in the apronprathamavāsyà to be first worn, These seem more markedly of secondary origin: and especially such forms as parivargyà to be avoidedavimokyá not to be gotten rid of, where the guttural reversion clearly indicates primitives in gaand ka (216 h).

c. Throughout the older language are of common occurrence neuter abstract nouns of the same make with the former of these classes. They are rarely found except in composition (in AV., only cítya and stéya as simple), and are often used in the dative, after the manner of a dative infinitive. Examples are: brahmajyéya, vasudéya, bhāgadhéya, pūrvapéya, çataséya, abhibhū́ya, devahū́ya, mantraçrútya, karmakṛ́tya, vṛtratū́rya, hotṛvū́rya, ahihátya, sattrasádya, çirṣabhídya, brahmacárya, nṛṣáhya. Of exceptional form are ṛtódya (√vad) and sahaçéyya (√çī); of exceptional accent, sadhástutya. And AV. has one example, raṇyà, with circumflexed final.

d. Closely akin with these, in meaning and use, is a smaller class of feminines in yā́: thus, kṛtyā́, vidyā́, ityā́, agnicityā́, vājajityā́, muṣṭihatyā́, devayajyā́, etc.

e. There remain, of course, a considerable number of less classifiable words, both nouns and adjectives, of which a few from the older language may be mentioned, without discussion of their relations: thus, sū́rya (with fem. sūryā́), ā́jya, púṣya, nábhyayújya, gṛ́dhya, írya, aryá and ā́rya, márya, mádhya.

The suffixes apparently most nearly akin with ya may best be next taken up.