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1222. ka. This is doubtless

क ka. This is doubtless originally one of the class of suffixes forming adjectives of appurtenance. And that value it still has in actual use; yet only in a small minority of occurrences. It has been, on the one hand, specialized into an element forming diminutives; and, on the other hand, and much more widely, attenuated into an element without definable value, added to a great many nouns and adjectives to make others of the same meaning — this last is, even in the Veda, and still more in the later language, its chief office.

a. Hence, ka easily associates itself with the finals of derivatives to which it is attached, and comes to seem along with them an integral suffix, and is further used as such. Of this origin are doubtless, as was seen above (1180, 1181), the so-called primary suffixes uka and aka; and likewise the secondary suffix ika (below; j).

b. The accent of derivatives in ka varies — apparently without rule, save that the words most plainly of diminutive character have the tone usually on the suffix.

c. Examples (from the older language) of words in which the suffix has an adjective-making value are: ántaka (ántaend-makingbálhīka (bálhiof Balkhāṇḍī́ka (āṇḍáegg-bearingsūcī́ka (sūcī́stingingurvāruká fruit of the gourd (urvārú), paryāyiká (paryāyástrophic; from numerals, ekaká, dvaká, triká, áṣṭakatṛ́tīyaka of the third day; from pronoun-stems, asmā́ka oursyuṣmā́ka yoursmámaka mine (516 d); from prepositions, ántika nearánuka followingávakā a plant (later adhika, utka); and, with accent retracted to the initial syllable (besides áṣṭaka and tṛ́tīyaka, already given), rū́paka (rūpáwith formbábhruka (babhrú brown) a certain lizard. Bhāvatka your worship'shas an anomalous initial vṛddhi.

d. Of words in which a diminutive meaning is more or less probable: açvaká nagkanī́naka and kumāraká boykanīnakā́ or kanī́nikā girlpādaká little footputraká little son,rājaká princelingçakuntaká birdling. Sometimes a contemptuous meaning is conveyed by such a diminutive: for formations with this value from pronominal stems, see above, 521; other examples are anyaká (RV.), álakam (RV.: from álam), and even the verb-form yāmaki (for yāmi: KB.).

e. The derivatives in ka with unchanged meaning are made from primitives of every variety of form, simple and compound, and have the same variety of accent as the adjective derivatives (with which they are at bottom identical). Thus:

f. From simple nouns and adjectives: ástaka homenā́sikā nostrilmákṣikā flyavikā́ eweiṣukā́ arrowdūraká distantsarvaká alldhénukā (dhenúcownágnaka (nagná)nakedbáddhaka (baddhácaptiveabhinnataraka by no means differentanastamitaké before sunset, vamraká antarbhaká smallçiçuká youngaṇīyaska finerejatkátremblingabhimādyatká intoxicatedpatayiṣṇuká flying. Such derivatives in the later language are innumerable; from almost any given noun or adjective may be made an equivalent, ending in ka or  (according to the gender).

g. From compound primitives: svalpaká very smallvímanyuka removing wrathvikṣiṇatká destroyingpravartamānaká moving forwardviksīṇaká destroyed.

h. In the Brāhmaṇas and later, ka is often added to a possessive adjective compound (1307), sometimes redundantly, but usually in order to obtain a more manageable stem for inflection: thus, anakṣíka eyelessatvakká skinlessaretáska without seedvyasthaka bonelesssaçiraska along with the headekagāyatrīka containing a single gāyatrī-verse,gṛhītávasatīvarīka one who has taken yesterday's watersapatnīka with his spousebahuhastíka having many elephantssadīkṣopasátka with dīkṣā and upasad,āhitasamitka with his fuel laid onabhinavavayaska of youthful agean̄guṣṭhamātraka of thumb size.

i. The vowel by which the ka is preceded has often an irregular character; and especially, a feminine in ikā is so common beside a masculine in aka as to be its regular correspondent (as is the case with the so-called primary aka: above, 1181). In RV. are found beside one another only iyattaká and iyattikā́; but AV. has several examples.

j. Two suffixes made up of ka and a preceding vowel — namely, aka and ika — are given by the grammarians as independent secondary suffixes, requiring initial vṛddhi-strengthening of the primitive. Both of them are doubtless originally made by addition of ka to a final i or a, though coming to be used independently.

k. Of vṛddhi-derivatives in aka no examples have been noted from the older language (unless māmaká mine is to be so regarded); and they are not common in the later: thus, āvaçyakanecessaryvārddhaka old agerāmaṇīyaka delightfulness.

l. Of vṛddhi-derivatives in ika, the Veda furnishes a very few cases: vā́santika vernalvā́rṣika of the rainy seasonhāímantika wintry (none of them in RV.); AV. has kāirātikā́of the Kirātas, apparent fem. to a masc. kāirātaka, which is not found till later. Examples from a more recent period (when they become abundant) are: vāidika relating to the Vedas,dhārmika religiousāhnika dailyvāinayika well-behaveddāuvārika doorkeepernāiyāyika versed in the Nyāya.

m. Before the suffix ka, some finals show a form which is characteristic of external rather than internal combination. A final sonant mute, of course, becomes surd, and an aspirate loses its aspiration (117 a, 114): cf. -upasatka, -samitka, above, h. So also a palatal becomes guttural (as before t etc.: 217): e. g. -srukka, -rukka, -tvakkaanṛkka. A s remains after ā˘, and becomes  after an alterant vowel (180): e. g. sadyaska, jyotiṣka, dirghāyuṣka. But the other sibilants take the form they would have in composition: thus, adíkka (diç),ṣaṭka, -viṭka, -tviṭka (ṣaṣ etc.). Anāçīrka (TS.: āçis) is anomalous; and so is parutka (Āpast.), if it comes from parus.