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1230. in. Possessive adjectives

इन् in. Possessive adjectives of this ending may be formed almost unlimitedly from stems in अ a or आ ā, and are sometimes (but very rarely) made from stems with other finals.

a. A final vowel disappears before the suffix. The accent is on the suffix. As to the inflection of these adjectives, see above, 438 ff. They are to be counted by hundreds in the older language, and are equally or more numerous in the later.

b. Examples from a-stems are: açvín possessing horsesdhanín wealthypakṣín wingedbalín strongbhagín fortunatevajrín wielding the thunderboltçikhaṇḍín crested,hastín possessing handsṣoḍaçín of sixteengardabhanādín having an ass's voicebrahmavarcasín of eminent sanctitysādhudevín having luck at playkūcidarthínhaving errands everywhither; — from ā-stems, manīṣín wiseçikhín crestedṛtāyín pious.

c. Derivatives from other stems are very few in comparison: thus, from i-stems, atithin (?), abhimātín, arcín, açanin, ūrmin, kālanemin, khādín, -pāṇin, marīcin, mauñjin, māulin, -yonin, venin, saṁdhin, samṛddhin, surabhin (of those found only at the end of a possessive compound the character is doubtful, since case-forms ofi- and in-stems are not seldom exchanged); from u-stems, gurvin, çatagvín (?), veṇavin (with guna of the u); — from stems in anvarmín, karmin, carmin, -chadmin, janmin, dhanvin, -dharmin, nāmin, brahmin, yakṣmin, çarmin, and çvanin; — in asretín rich in seed, and probably varcin n. pr.; also (perhaps through stems in -saçavasín and sahasin, manasín, -vayasín; — isolated are parisrajín garlanded, and hiranín (hiránya).

d. It was pointed out above (1183) that derivatives in in have assumed on a large scale the aspect and value of primary derivatives, with the significance of present participles, especially at the end of compounds. The properly secondary character of the whole formation is shown, on the one hand, by the frequent use in the same manner of words bearing an unmistakably secondary form, as praçnín, garbhín, jūrṇín, dhūmín, snānin, homin, matsarín, paripanthín, pravepanín, saṁgatin; and, on the other hand, by the occurrence of reverted palatals (216) before the in, which could only be as in replaced a: thus, arkín, -bhan̄gín, -san̄gín, -rokín.

e. In a few cases, there appears before the in a y preceded by an ā of inorganic character: thus, dhanvāyín, tantrāyín, çvetāyín, sṛkāyín, ātatāyín, pratihitāyín, marāyín, ṛtāyín, svadhāyín (VS.: TB. -vín). The y in all such words is evidently the inserted y after ā (258 a), and to assume for them a suffix yin is quite needless.

f. The accentuation pravrā́jin, prasyándin, in the concluding part of ÇB., is doubtless false; and the same is to be suspected for çā́kī, sárī, írī (RV., each once).

g. A very few words in in have not suffered the possessive specialization. Such are vanín tree, hermitkapotín dovelikeaṇḍin scrotum-like (cf. 1233 f).