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1234. van. The secondary derivatives

वन् van. The secondary derivatives in this suffix belong to the older language, and are a small number, of which extremely few have more than an occurrence or two.

a. They have the aspect of being produced under the joint influence of primary van and secondary vant. A final short vowel is usually lengthened before the suffix. The accent is various, but oftenest on the penult of the stem. The feminine (like that of the derivatives in primary van: 1169 f) is in varī.

b. The Vedic examples are: from a-stems, ṛṇāván or ṛṇaván, ṛtā́van (and f. -varī), ṛ́ghāvan, dhitā́van, satyā́van, sumnāvarī, and maghávan; from ā-stems,sūnṛ́tāvarī, svadhā́van (and f. -varī); from i-stems, amatīván, arātīván, çruṣṭīván, muṣīván, and kṛṣīvan (only in the further derivative kā́rṣīvaṇa); dhī́van; from consonant-stems, átharvan, samádvan, sáhovan (bad AV. variant to RV. sahā́van); hā́rdvan (TA. also hārdivan). Somewhat anomalous are sahā́van, índhanvan (foríndhanavan?), and sanítvan (for sánitivan?). The only words of more than sporadic occurrence are ṛtā́van, maghávan, átharvan.

c. Sáhovan (see b) is the only example of external combination with this suffix.