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1239. tva. With this suffix

त्व tva. With this suffix are made neuter nouns, of the same value as the feminines in ता  (above, 1237).

a. The neuter abstracts in tva are in the older language considerably more common than the feminines in , although themselves also not very numerous. The accent is without exception on the suffix.

b. Examples (from the older language) are: amṛtatvá immortalitydevatvá divinitysubhagatvá good-fortuneahamuttaratvá struggle for precedencyçucitvá puritypatitváhusbandshiptaraṇitvá energydīrghāyutvá long lifeçatrutvá enmitybhrātṛtvá brotherhoodvṛṣatvá virilitysātmatvá soulfulnessmaghavattvá liberalityrakṣastvásorcery. In anāgāstvá and -prajāstvá there is a lengthening of the final syllable of the primitive; and in sāuprajāstvá (AV., once) this appears to be accompanied by initial vṛddhi(sāubhagatvá is doubtless from sāúbhaga, not subhága); and in these and pratyanastvá there is an apparent insertion of s. In sadhanitvá (RV.), vasatīvaritvá (TS.),rohiṇitvá (TB.), there is shortening of final feminine ī before the suffix. Of peculiar formation are astitva actuality and sahatva union. The apparent feminine datives yūthatvāyāiand gaṇatvāyāi (KS.) are doubtless false forms.

c. Besides the usual guttural reversions in samyaktva, sayuktva, we have external combination in samittva (-idh-) and pūrvavāṭtva (-vah-).

d. In iṣitatvátā (RV., once) incitedness, and puruṣatvátā (RV., twice) human quality, appears to be a combination of the two equivalent suffixes tva and .

e. The v of tva is to be read in Veda as u only once (rakṣastuá).