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1245. A few suffixes are used to make derivatives

A few suffixes are used to make derivatives from certain limited and special classes of words, as numerals and particles. Thus:

a. तय taya makes a few adjectives, meaning of so many divisions or kinds (used in the neuter as collectives), from numerals: thus, ékataya (MS.), dvitaya, tritaya, cátuṣṭaya(AV.), ṣaṭtaya (KB.: with external combination), saptátaya (ÇB.), aṣṭātaya (AB.), dáçataya (RV.), bahútaya (TS.). Their fem. is in -.

b. त्य tya makes a class of adjectives from particles: e. g. nítya ownníṣṭya foreignamā́tya companion, etc. As the examples show, the accent of the primitive is retained. The fem. is in -tyā.

c. The other quotable examples are ápatya, āvíṣṭya, sánutya, antastya, anyatastya-, tatastya, kutastya, atratya, tatratya, yatratya, kutratya, ihatya, upatya, adhitya, prātastya, dakṣiṇātya (instead of which, the regular form, is generally found dākṣiṇātya, apparently a further vṛddhi-derivative from it: as ifbelonging to the southerners), and pāçcāttya and pāurastya (of a similar character: these three last are said by the grammarians to be accented on the final, as is proper for vṛddhi-derivatives); aptyá and āptyá perhaps contain the same suffix. In antastya and prātastya is seen external combination.

d. The y of tya is in RV. always to be read as i after a heavy syllable.

e. त ta forms ekatá, dvitá, and tritá, also muhūrtá moment, and apparently avatá well (for water).

f. With न na are made purāṇá ancientvíṣuṇa various, and perhaps samāná like.

g. With तन tana or (in a few cases) त्न tna are made adjectives from adverbs, nearly always of time: e. g. pratná ancientnū́tana or nū́tna presentsanātána or sanátna lasting,divātana of the dayçvástana of tomorrowhyastana of yesterday. The accent is various. The feminine is in nī́.

h. The other quotable examples are: agretana, adyatana, adhunātána, idaṁtana, idānīṁtana, etarhitana, ciraṁtana, tadānīṁtana, doṣātana, purātana, prāktana, prātastána, sadātana, sāyaṁtána; from adverbs of place, adhastana, arvāktana, uparitana, kutastana; — with tna, parastāttna, purastāttna. A further vṛddhi-derivative, with equivalent meaning, nāutana (cf. above, c), occurs late. In PB. is once found tvattana belonging to thee.

i. Besides the obvious cases of an assimilated final m before this suffix, we have external combination in prātastána.

j. वत् vat makes from particles of direction the feminine nouns mentioned above (383 k. 1).

k. कट kaṭa, properly a noun in composition, is reckoned by the grammarians as a suffix, in utkaṭa, nikaṭa, prakaṭa, vikaṭa (RV., once, voc.), and saṁkaṭa (all said to be accented on the final).

l. A suffix vana is perhaps to be seen in nivanápravaṇa; — and āla in antarāla.

m. Occasional derivatives made with the ordinary suffixes of primary and secondary derivation from numerals and particles have been noted above: thus, see ana (1150 n), ti (1157 h), ant(1172 a), u (1178 i), a (1209 i), ka (1222 c), mna (1224 c), maya (1225 a), vant (1233 e).