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1249. The final of a stem

a. The final of a stem is combined with the initial of another stem in composition according to the general rules for external combination: they have been given, with their exceptions, in chap. III., above.

b. If a stem has a distinction of strong and weak forms, it regularly enters into composition as prior member in its weak form; or, if it has a triple distinction (311), in its middle form.

c. That is, especially, stems in  or arat or antac or añc, etc., show in composition the forms in ṛ, at, ac, etc.; while those in an and in usually (exceptions sometimes occur, asvṛṣaṇaçvá, vṛṣaṇvasú) lose their final n, and are combined as if a and i were their proper finals.

d. As in secondary derivation (1203 d), so also as prior member of a compound, a stem sometimes shortens its final long vowel (usually ī, rarely ā): thus, in V., rodasiprā́, pṛthiviṣṭhā́, pṛthiviṣád, dhā́rapūta, dhāravāká; in B., pṛthivi-dā, -bhāga, -loká, sarasvatikṛta, senānigrāmaṇyāù; in S., garbhiniprāyaçcitta, sāmidheniprāiṣtya, vasatīvaripariharaṇa, ekādaçinilin̄ga, prapharvidā, devatalakṣaṇa, devatapradhānatva; later, devakinandana, lakṣmivardhana, kumāridatta, muhūrtaja, iṣṭakacita, etc.

e. Occasionally, a stem is used as prior member of a compound which does not appear, or not in that form, as an independent word: examples are mahā great (apparently used independently in V. in accusative), tuvi mighty (V.), dvi two.

f. Not infrequently, the final member of a compound assumes a special form: see below, 1315.