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1255. Copulative compounds such as appear later

In the oldest language (RV.), copulative compounds such as appear later are quite rare, the class being chiefly represented by dual combinations of the names of divinities and other personages, and of personified natural objects.

a. In these combinations, each name has regularly and usually the dual form, and its own accent; but, in the very rare instances (only three occurrences out of more than three hundred) in which other cases than the nom.-acc.-voc. are formed, the final member only is inflected.

b. Examples are: índrāsómā, índrāvíṣṇū, índrābṛ́haspátī, agnī́ṣómāu, turváçāyádū, dyā́vāpṛthivī́, uṣā́sānáktā (and, with intervening words,náktā...uṣā́sā), sū́ryāmā́sā. The only plural is indrāmarutas (voc.). The cases of other than nominative form are mitrā́váruṇābhyām and mitrā́váruṇayos (also mitráyor váruṇayoḥ), and índrāváruṇayos (each once only).

c. From dyā́vapṛthivī́ is made the very peculiar genitive diváspṛthivyós (4 times: AV. has dyā́vāpṛthivī́bhyām and dyā́vāpṛthivyós).

d. In one compound, parjányavā́tā, the first member (RV., once) does not have the dual ending along with the double accent (indranāsatyā, voc., is doubtful as to accent). In several, the double accent is wanting, while yet the double designation of number is present: thus, indrāpūṣṇós (beside índrāpūṣáṇā), somāpūṣábhyām (somāpūṣaṇā occurs only as voc.), vātāparjanyā́, sūryācandramásā, and indrāgnī́ (with indrāgníbhyām and indrāgnyós): somārudrāú is accented only in ÇB. And in one, indravāyū́, form and accent are both accordant with the usages of the later language.

e. Of other copulatives, like those made later, the RV. has the plural ajāváyas, the duals ṛksāmé, satyānṛté, sāçanānaçané; also the neuter collective iṣṭāpūrtám, and the substantively used neuter of a copulative adjective, nīlalohitám. Further, the neuter plurals ahorātrā́ṇi nycthemera, and ukthārkā́ praises and songs, of which the final members as independent words are not neuter. No one of these words has more than a single occurrence.