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1260. Repeated words

Repeated words. In all ages of the language, nouns and pronouns and adjectives and particles are not infrequently repeated, to give an intensive, or a distributive, or a repetitional meaning.

a. Though these are not properly copulative compounds, there is no better connection in which to notice them than here. They are, as the older language shows, a sort of compound, of which the prior member has its own independent accent, and the other is without accent: hence they are most suitably and properly written (as in the Vedic pada-texts) as compounds. Thus: jahy èṣaṁ váraṁ-varam slay of them each beat man; divé-dive or dyávi-dyavi from day to day; án̄gād-an̄gāl lómno-lomnaḥ párvaṇi-parvaṇi from every limb, from every hair, in each joint; prá-pra yajñápatiṁ tira make the master of the sacrifice live on and on; bhū́yo-bhūyaḥ çváḥ-çvaḥ further and further, tomorrow and again tomorrow; ékayāi-’kayā with in each case one; vayáṁ-vayam our very selves.

b. Exceptional and rare cases are those of a personal verb-form repeated: thus, píbā-piba (RV.), yájasva-yajasva (ÇB.), véda-veda (? ÇB.); — and of two words repeated: thus,yā́vad vā-yāvad vā (ÇB.), yatamé vā-yatame vā (ÇB.).

c. In a few instances, a word is found used twice in succession without that loss of accent the second time which makes the repetition a virtual composite: thus, nū́ nú (RV.), sáṁ sám(AV.), ihé ’há (AV.), anáyā- ’náyā (ÇB.), stuhí stuhí (RV., acc. to pada-text).

d. The class of combinations here described is called by the native grammarians āmreḍita added unto (?).