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1289. Verbal prefixes are sometimes used

The verbal prefixes are sometimes used in a general adverbial way, qualifying a following adjective or noun.

a. Examples of such combinations are not numerous in the Veda. Their accentuation is various, though the tone rests oftenest on the preposition. Thus, ádhipati over-lordáparūpamis-formprátiçatru opposing foeprápada fore part of footpráṇapāt great-grandchildvípakva quite donesámpriya mutually dear; upajíhvikā side tongue (with retraction of the accent of jihvā́); antardeçá intermediate directionpradív forward heavenprapitāmahá (also prápitāmahagreat-grandfatherpratijaná opponentvyadhvá midway. These compounds are more frequent with possessive value (below, 1305).

b. This use of the verbal prefixes is more common later, and some of them have a regular value in such compounds. Thus, ati denotes excess, as in atidūra very faratibhayaexceeding fearátipūruṣa (ÇB.) chief man; adhi, superiority, as in adhidanta upper-toothadhistrī chief woman; abhi is intensive, as in abhinamra much inclivingabhinavaspan-newabhirucira delightful; ā signifies somewhat, as in ākuṭila somewhat crookedānīla bluish; upa denotes something accessory or secondary, as in upapurāṇa additional Purāna; pari, excess, as in paridurbala very weak; prati, opposition, as in pratipakṣa opposing sidepratipustaka copy; vi, variation or excess, as in vidūra very far,vipāṇḍu greyishvikṣudra respectively small; sam, completeness, as in sampakva quite ripe.