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1294. That a noun, simple or compound

a. That a noun, simple or compound, should be added to another noun, in an appositive way, with a value virtually attributive, and that such nouns should occasionally gain by frequent association and application an adjective form also, is natural enough, and occurs in many languages; the peculiarity of the Sanskrit formation lies in two things. First, that such use should have become a perfectly regular and indefinitely extensible one in the case of compounded words, so that any compound with noun-final may be turned without alteration into an adjective, while to a simple noun must be added an adjective-making suffix in order to adapt it to adjective use: for example, that while hasta must become hastin and bāhu must becomebāhumanthiraṇyahasta and mahābāhu change from noun to adjective value with no added ending. And second, that the relation of the qualified noun to the compound should have come to be so generally that of possession, not of likeness, nor of appurtenance, nor of any other relation which is as naturally involved in such a construction: that we may only say, for example, mahābāhuḥ puruṣaḥ man with great arms, and not also mahābāhur maṇiḥ jewel for a great arm, or mahābāhavaḥ çākhāḥ branches like great arms.

b. There are, however, in the older language a few derivative adjective compounds which imply the relation of appurtenance rather than that of possession, and which are with probability to be viewed as survivals of a state of things antecedent to the specialization of the general class as possessive (compare the similar exceptions under possessive suffixes, 1230 g, 1233 f). Examples are: viçvā́nara of or for all men, belonging to all (and so viçvákṛṣṭi, -carṣaṇi, -kṣiti, -gotra, -manus, -āyu, and sarvápaçusaptámānuṣa),viçváçārada of every autumnvipathá for bad roadsdvirājá [battle] of two kingsáçvapṛṣṭha carried on horsebackvīrápastya abiding with heroespūrṇámāsa at full moon,adévaka for no divinitybahudevata or -tyà for many divinitiesaparisaṁvatsara not lasting a fall yearekādaçakapāla for eleven dishessomendrá for Soma and Indra. And the compounds with final member in ana mentioned at 1296 b are probably of the same character. But also in the later language, some of the so-called dvigu-compounds (1312) belong with these: so dvigu itself, as meaning worth two cowsdvināu bought for two ships; also occasional cases like devāsura [saṁgrāma] of the gods and demonsnarahaya of man and horsecakramusala with discus and clubgurutalpa violating the teacher's bed.