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1299. Possessive compounds with a participle preceding and qualifying the final noun

Possessive compounds with a participle preceding and qualifying the final noun-member are numerous, although such a compound with simple descriptive value is almost unknown. The accent is, with few exceptions, that of the prior member.

a. The participle is oftenest the passive one, in ta or na. Thus, chinnápakṣa with severed wingdhṛtárāṣṭra of firmly held royaltyhatámātṛ whose mother is slainiddhā́gni whose fire is kindleduttānáhasta with outstretched handpráyatadakṣiṇa having presented sacrificial gifts; and, with prefixed negative, áriṣṭavīra whose men are unharmed,átaptatanu of unburned substanceánabhimlātavarṇa of untarnished color. Exceptions in regard to accent are very few: there have been noticed only paryastākṣá, vyastakeçī́ f., achinnaparṇá.

b. Examples occur of a present participle in the same situation. In about half the (accentuated) instances, it gives its own accent to the compound: thus, dyutádyāman, dhṛṣádvarṇaetc., çucádratha, rúçadvatsa etc., bhrā́jajjanman etc., saṁyádvīra, stanáyadama, sā́dhadiṣṭi; in the others, the accent is drawn forward to the final syllable of the participle (as in the compounds with governing participle: below, 1309): thus, dravátpāṇi etc. (dravát also occurs as adverb), rapçádūdhan, svanádratha, arcáddhūma, bhandádiṣṭi, krandádiṣṭi. With these last agrees in form jarádaṣṭi attaining old age, long-lived; but its make-up, in view of its meaning, is anomalous.

c. The RV. has two compounds with the perfect middle participle as prior member: thus, yuyujānásapti with harnessed coursers (perhaps rather having harnessed their coursers), anddadṛçānápavi (with regular accent, instead of dádṛçāna, as elsewhere irregularly in this participle) with conspicuous wheel-rims.

d. Of a nearly participial character is the prior element in çrútkarṇa (RV.) of listening ear; and with this are perhaps accordant dī́dyagni and sthā́raçman (RV., each once).