Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVIII‎ > ‎

1302. Especially common is the use of a noun

Especially common is the use of a noun as prior member to qualify the other appositionally, or by way of equivalence (the occasional occurrence of determinatives of this character has been noticed above, 1280 d). These may conveniently be called appositional possessives. Their accent is that of the prior member, like the ordinary possessive descriptives.

a. Examples are: áçvaparṇa horse-winged, or having horses as wings (said of a chariot), bhū́migṛha having the earth as houseíndrasakhi having Indra for friendagníhotṛ having Agni as priestgandharvápatnī having a Gandharva for spouseçūráputra having hero-sonsjarā́mṛtyu having old age as mode of death, living till old ageagnívāsas fire-clad,tadanta ending with thatcāracakṣus using spies for eyesvíṣṇuçarmanāman named Vishnuçarman; and, with pronoun instead of noun, tvā́dūta having thee as messenger,tádapas having this for work. Exceptions in regard to accent occur here, as in the more regular descriptive formation: thus, agnijihvá, vṛṣaṇaçvá, dhūmaçikhá, pavīnasá, asáunā́ma, tatkúla, etc.

b. Not infrequently, a substantively used adjective is the final member in such a compound: thus, índrajyeṣṭha having Indra as chiefmánaḥṣaṣṭha having the mind as sixth,sómaçreṣṭha of which soma is bestekapará of which the ace is highest (?), ásthibhūyas having bone as the larger part, chiefly of boneabhirūpabhūyiṣṭha chiefly composed of worthy personsdaçāvara having ten as the lowest numbercintāpara having meditation as highest object or occupation, devoted to meditationniḥçvāsaparama much addicted to sighing.

c. Certain words are of especial frequency in the compounds here described, and have in part won a peculiar application. Thus:

d. With ādi beginning or ādika or ādya first are made compounds signifying the person or thing specified along with others, such a person or thing et cetera. For example, devā indrādayaḥ the gods having Indra as first, i. e. the gods Indra etc.marīcyādīn munīn Marīci and the other sagessvāyambhuvādyāḥ saptāi ’te manavaḥ those seven Manus, Svāyambhuva etc.agniṣṭomādikān the sacrifices Agnishtoma and so on. Or the qualified noun is omitted, as in annapānendhanādīni food, drink, fuel, etc.dānadharmādikaṁ caratu bhavān let your honor practise liberality, religious rites, and the like. The particles evam and iti are also sometimes used by substitution as prior members: thus, evamādi vacanam words to this and the like effect; ato ‘ham bravīmi kartavyaḥ saṁcayo nityam ityādi hence I say "accumulation is ever to be made" etc.

e. Used in much the same way, but less often, is prabhṛti beginning: thus, viçvāvasuprabhṛtibhir gandharvāiḥ with the Gandharvas Viçvāvasu etc.; especially adverbially, in measurements of space and time, as tatprabhṛti or tataḥprabhṛti thenceforward.

f. Words meaning foregoer, predecessor, and the like — namely, pūrva, pūrvaka, puraḥsara, puraskṛta, purogama — are often employed in a similar manner, and especially adverbially, but for the most part to denote accompaniment, rather than antecedence, of that which is designated by the prior member of the compound: e. g. smitapūrvam with a smile,anāmayapraçnapūrvakam with inquiries after healthpitāmahapurogama accompanied by the Great Father.

g. The noun mātrā measure stands as final of a compound which is used adjectively or in the substantive neuter to signify a limit that is not exceeded, and obtains thus the virtual value ofmere, only: thus, jalamātreṇa vartayan living by water only (lit. by that which has water for its measure or limit), garbhacyutimātreṇa by merely issuing from the womb,prāṇāyātrikamātraḥ syāt let him be one possessing what does not exceed the preservation of life; uktamātre tu vacane but the words being merely uttered.

h. The noun artha object, purpose is used at the end of a compound, in the adverbial accusative neuter, to signify for the take of or the like: thus, yajñasiddhyartham in order to the accomplishment of the sacrifice (lit. in a manner having the accomplishment of the sacrifice as its object), damayantyartham for Damayantī's sake (with Damayantī as object).

i. Other examples are ābhā, kalpa, in the sense of like, approaching: thus, hemābha gold-like, mṛtakalpa nearly deadpratipannakalpa almost accomplished; — vidhā, in the sense of kind, sort: thus, tvadvidha of thy sortpúruṣavidha of human kind; — prāya, in the sense of mostly, often, and the like: thus, duḥkhaprāya full of paintṛṇaprāyaabounding in grassnirgamanaprāya often going out; — antara (in substantive neuter), in the sense of other: thus, deçāntara another region (lit. that which has a difference of region), janmāntarāṇi other existencesçākhāntare in another text.