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1304. Of possessive compounds having an adverbial element

Of possessive compounds having an adverbial element as prior member, the most numerous by far are those made with the inseparable prefixes. Their accent is various. Thus:

a. In compounds with the negative prefix a or an (in which the latter logically negatives the imported idea of possession), the accent is prevailingly on the final syllable, without regard to the original accent of the final member. For example: anantá having no endabalá not possessing strengtharathá without chariotaçraddhá faithlessamaṇí without ornamentaçatrúwithout a foeavarmán not cuirassedadánt toothlessapád footlessatejás without brightness, anārambhaṇá not to be gotten hold ofapratimāná incomparableaducchunábringing no harmapakṣapucchá without sides or tail.

b. But a number of examples (few in proportion to those already instanced) have the prefix accented (like the simple descriptives: 1288 a): thus, ákṣiti indestructibleágu kineless,ágopā without shepherdájīvana lifelessánāpi without friendsáçiçvī f. without youngámṛtyu deathlessábrahman without priestávyacas without extensionáhavis without oblation, and a few others; AV. has áprajas, but ÇB. aprajás. A very few have the accent on the penult: namely, açéṣas, ajā́ni, and avī́ra (with retraction, from vīrá), apútra(do., from putrá); and AV. has abhrā́tṛ, but RV. abhrātṛ́.

c. In compounds with the prefixes of praise and dispraise, su and dus, the accent is in the great majority of cases that of the final member: thus, sukálpa of easy makesubhága well portionedsunákṣatra of propitious starsuputrá having excellent sonssugopā́ well-shepherdedsukīrtí of good famesugándhi fragrantsubāhú well-armedsuyáṁtu of easy controlsukrátu of good capacitysuhā́rd good-heartedsusráj well-garlandedsuvárman well-cuirassedsuvā́sas well-cladsupráṇīti well guiding; durbhága ill-portioneddurdṛ́çīka of evil aspectdurdhára hard to restraindurgándhi ill-savoreddurādhī́ of evil designsdurdhártu hard to restrainduṣṭárītu hard to excelduratyétuhard to crossdurdhúr ill-yokeddurṇā́man ill-nameddurvā́sas ill-clad.

d. There are, however, a not inconsiderable number of instances in which the accent of these compounds is upon the final syllable: thus, suçiprá well-lippedsvapatyá of good progeny,susaṁkāçá of good aspectsvan̄gurí well-fingeredsviṣú having good arrowssupīvás well fatted; and compounds with derivatives in ana, as suvijñaná of easy discernment,sūpasarpaṇá of easy approachduçcyavaná hard to shake; and AV. has suphalá and subandhú against RV. suphála and subándhu. Like avī́rasuvī́ra shows retraction of accent. Only dúrāçir has the tone on the prefix.

e. On the whole, the distinction by accent of possessive from determinative is less clearly shown in the words made with su and dus than in any other body of compounds.

f. The associative prefix sa or (less often) sahá is treated like an adjective element, and itself takes the accent in a possessive compound: thus, sákratu of joint willsánāman of like namesárūpa of similar formsáyoni having a common originsávācas of assenting wordssátoka having progeny along, with one's progenysábrāhmaṇa together with the Brahmanssámūla with the rootsā́ntardeça with the intermediate directions; sahágopa with the shepherdsahávatsa accompanied by one's youngsahápatnī having her husband with hersahápūruṣa along with our men.

g. In RV. (save in a doubtful case or two), only saha in such compounds gives the meaning of having with one, accompanied by; and, since saha governs the instrumental, the words beginning with it might be of the prepositional class (below, 1310). But in AV. both sa and saha have this value (as illustrated by examples given above); and in the later language, the combinations with sa are much the more numerous.

h. There are a few exceptions, in which the accent is that of the final member: thus, sajóṣa, sajóṣas, sadṛ́ça, sapráthas, sabā́dhas, samanyú and AV. shows the accent on the final syllable in sān̄gá (ÇB. sā́n̄ga) and the substantivized (1312) savidyutá.

i. Possessive compounds with the exclamatory prefixes ka etc. are too few in the older language to furnish ground for any rule as to accent: kábandha is perhaps an example of such.