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1310. Prepositional Compounds

Prepositional Compounds. By this name may be conveniently called those combinations in which the prior member is a particle having true prepositional value, and the final member is a noun governed by it. Such combinations, though few in number as compared with other classes of compounds, are not rare, either in the earlier language or in the later. Their accent is so various that no rule can be set up respecting it.

a. Examples are: átyavi passing through the woolatirātrá overnightatimātrá exceeding measure; ádhiratha lying on the chariotadhigavá belonging to the cow; adhaspadáunder the feetadhoakṣa below the axle; ánupatha following the roadanupūrvá following the one preceding, one after anotheranuṣatyá in accordance with truthanukū́la down stream, etc.; ántaspatha (with anomalously changed accent of antár), within the wayantardāvá within the flame (?)antarhastá in the hand; ántigṛha near the house;apiprā́ṇa accompanying the breath (prāṇá), ápivrata concerned with the ceremonyapiçarvará bordering on nightapikarṇá next the ear; abhijñú reaching to the knee,abhívīra and abhísatvan overcoming heroes; ā́pathi on the roadā́deva going to the godsājarasá reaching old ageādvādaçá up to twelve; upakakṣá reaching to the armpitsupottamá next to last, penultimate; upáribudhna above the bottomupárimartya rising above mortals; tirojaná beyond people; niḥsālá cut of the house; paripád(about the feet) snareparihastá about the hand, bracelet; parókṣa out of sightparómātra beyond measureparogavyūtí beyond the fieldsparaḥsahasrá (páraḥsahasra, ÇB.) above a thousand; purokṣá in front of the eyes; pratidosá toward eveningpratilomá against the grainpratikū́la up streampratyákṣa before the eyes; bahiḥparidhíoutside the enclosure; vípathi outside the road; samakṣá close to the eyes, in sight.

b. Compounds of this character are in the later language especially common with adhi: thus, adhyātma relating to the soul or selfadhiyajña relating to the sacrifice, etc.

c. A suffixal a is sometimes added to a final consonant, as in upānasá on the wagonāvyuṣá until daybreak. In a few instances, the suffix ya is taken (see above, 1212 m); and in one word the suffix in: thus, paripantín besetting the path.

d. The prepositional compounds are especially liable to adverbial use: see below, 1313 b.