Contents‎ > ‎CHAPTERS‎ > ‎CHAPTER XVIII‎ > ‎

1313. Those adverbially used accusatives

Those adverbially used accusatives of secondary adjective compounds which have an indeclinable or particle as prior member are reckoned by the Hindu grammarians as a separate class of compounds, and called by the name avyayībhāva.

a. This term is a derivative from the compound verb (1094) made up of avyaya uninflected and √bhū, and means conversion to an indeclinable.

b. The prepositional compounds (1310) are especially frequent in this use: thus, for example, anuṣvadhám by one's own willabhipūrvám and parovarám in successionādvādaçám up to twelvepratidoṣám at eveningsamakṣám in sight. Instances given by the grammarians are: adhihari upon Hariuparājam with the kingupanadam or upanadi near the river,pratyagni toward the firepratiniçam every nightnirmakṣikam with freedom from flies.

c. A large and important class is made up of words having a relative adverb, especially yathā, as prior member. Thus, for example, yathāvaçám as one chooses (váça will), yathākṛtámas done [before], according to usageyathānāmá by nameyathābhāgám according to several portionyathān̄gám and yathāparú limb by limbyatrakā́mam whither one will,yāvanmātrám in some measureyāvajjīvám as long as one livesyāvatsábandhu according to the number of relations.

d. These compounds are not common in the old language; RV. has with yathā only four of them, AV. only ten; and no such compound is used adjectively except yācchreṣṭha RV.,yāvacchreṣṭhá AV. as good as possible. ÇB. has yathākārín, yathācārín, yáthākāma, yáthākratu as adjectives (followed in each case by a correlative táthā). The adjective use in the later language also is quite rare as compared with the adverbial.

e. Other cases than the accusative occasionally occur: thus, instrumental, as yathāsaṁkhyena, yathāçaktyā, yathepsayā, yathāpratiguṇāis; and ablative, asyathāucityāt.

f. A class of adverbs of frequent occurrence is made with sa: e. g. sakopam angrilysādaram respectfullysasmitam with a smilesaviçeṣam especially.

g. Other adverbial compounds of equivalent character occur earlier, and are common later: for example, ṛtekarmám without worknānārathám on different chariotsubhayadyús two days in successioncitrapadakramam with wonderful progresspradānapūrvam with accompaniment of a gift; etc.