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1314. Anomalous Compounds

As in every language, compounds are now and then met with which are of anomalous character, as exhibiting combinations of elements not usually put together, or not after such a method, or for such a purpose. Some of these, especially of those occurring in the old language, may well be noticed here.

a. Compounds having a particle as final member: as, apratí having no equaltuvipratí mightily opposingátathā refusingvitatha falseyathātathá as it really issúsahaprosperity in companionshipaniha and anamutra having no here and no yonder, etc.

b. Agglomerations of two or more elements out of phrases: thus, ahampūrvá eager to be firstahamuttará contest for preeminencemamasatyá contest for possessionitihāsálegend (iti hā ”sa thus, indeed, it was), naghamārá and naghāriṣá not, surely, dying or coming to harmkuvítsa some unknown persontadídartha having just that as aim,kūcidarthín having errands in every directionkācitkará doing all sorts of thingskuhacidvíd wherever foundakutaçcidbhaya out of all dangeryadbhaviṣya What-is-to-be, etc.

c. Agglomerations in which the prior member retains a syntactic form: as, anyonya and paraspara one anotheravaraspara inverted.

d. Aggregations with the natural order inverted: e. g. pitāmahá and tatāmahá grandfatherputrahata with his sons slainjānvākná and -jānvakta with bended kneedantajātaprovided with teethsomāpahṛtá deprived of somapan̄ktírādhas having groups of giftsgojara old bullagrajihvá, agranāsikā, etc. tip of the tongueof the nose, etc. Compare also 1291 c.

e. Aggregations of particles were pointed out above (1111 a); also (1122 e) cases in which  and mā́ are used in composition.

f. In late Sanskrit (perhaps after the false analogy of combinations like tad anu, viewed as tadanu, with tad as stem instead of neuter accusative), a preposition is sometimes compounded as final member with the noun governed by it: e. g. vṛkṣādhas or vṛkṣādhastāt under the treedantāntaḥ between the teethbhavanopari on top of the house,satyavinā without truth.