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265. As to the uses of the numerals

As to the uses of the numerals, it needs only to be remarked that the dual is (with only very rare and sporadic exceptions) used strictly in all cases where two objects are logically indicated, whether directly or by combination of two individuals: thus, çivé te dyā́vāpṛthivī́ ubhé stām may heaven and earth both be propitious to thee!dāivaṁ ca mānuṣaṁ ca hotārāu vṛtvā having chosen both the divine and the human sacrificers; pathor devayānasya pitṛyāṇasya ca of the two paths leading respectively to the gods and to the Fathers.

a. The dual is used alone (without dva two) properly when the duality of the objects indicated is well understood; thus, açvínāu the two Açvins; índrasya hárī Indra's two bays; but tasya dvāv açvāu staḥ he has two horses. But now and then the dual stands alone pregnantly: thus, vedaṁ vedāu vedān vā one Veda or two or more than two; ekaṣaṣṭe çate two hundred and sixty-one.