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268. One or two peculiar constructions

One or two peculiar constructions call for notice:

a. A predicate nominative, instead of an objective predicate in the accusative, is used with middle verb-forms that signify regarding or calling one’s self: thus, sómam manyate papivā́n (RV.) he thinks he has been drinking soma; sá manyeta purāṇavít (AV.) he may regard himself as wise in ancient things; durgā́d vā́ āhartā́ ’vocathāḥ (MS.) thou hast claimed to be a savior out of trouble; índro brāhmaṇó brúvāṇaḥ (TS.) Indra pretending to be a Brahman; katthase satyavādī (R.)thou boasted thyself truthful. Similarly with the phrase rūpaṁ kṛ: thus, kṛṣṇó rūpáṁ kṛtvā́ (TS.) taking on a black form (i.e. making shape for himself as one that is black).

b. A word made by iti (1102) logically predicate to an object is ordinarily nominative: thus, svargó loká íti yáṁ vádanti (AV.) what they call the heavenly world:tam agniṣṭoma ity ācakṣate (AB.) it they style agniṣṭoma; vidarbharājatanayāṁ damayantī ’ti viddhi mām (MBh.) know me for the Vidarbha-king’s daughter, Damayantī by name. Both constructions are combined in ajñaṁ hi bālam ity āhuḥ pite ’ty eva tu mantradam (M.) for to an ignorant man they give the name of ‘child’, but that of ‘father’ to one who imparts the sacred texts.

c. A nominative, instead of a second vocative, is sometimes added to a vocative by ca and: thus, índraç ca sómam pibatam bṛhaspate (RV.) together with Indra, do ye two drink the soma, O Bṛhaspati! víçve devā yájamānaç ca sīdatā (TS.) O ye All-Gods, and the sacrificer, take seats!