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271. Of verbal derivatives

Of verbal derivatives having so far a participial character that they share the construction of the verb, the variety is considerable: thus —

a. Derivatives in u from desiderative stems (1038) have wholly the character of present participles: thus, damayantīm abhīpsavaḥ (MBh.) desiring to win Damayantī;didṛkṣur janakātmajām (R.) desiring to see Janaka’s daughter. Rarely, also, the verbal noun in ā from such a root: thus, svargam abhikān̄kṣayā (R.) with desire of paradise.

b. So-called primary derivatives in in have the same character: thus, mā́ṁ kāmínī (AV.) loving me; enam abhibhāṣiṇī (MBh.) addressing him. Even the obviously secondary garbhín has in ÇB. the same construction: thus, sárvāṇi bhūtā́ni garbhy àbhavat he became pregnant with all beings.

c. Derivations in aka, in the later language: as, bhavantam abhivādakaḥ (MBh.) intending to salute you; mithilām avarodhakaḥ (R.) besieging Mithilā.

d. Nouns in tar, very frequently in the older language, and as periphrastic future forms (942 ff.) in the later: thus, hántā yó vṛtráṁ sánito ’tá vā́jaṁ dā́tā maghā́ni (RV.) who slayeth the dragon, winneth booty, bestoweth largesses; tāu hī ’daṁ sarvaṁ hartārāu (JB.) for they seize on this universe; tyaktāraḥ saṁyuge prāṇān (MBh.) risking life in battle.

e. The root itself, in the older language, used with the value of a present participle at the end of a compound: thus, yáṁ yajñám paribhū́r ási (RV.) what offering thou surroundest (protectest); áhim apáḥ pariṣṭhā́m (RV.) the dragon confining the waters. Also a superlative of a root-stem (468, 471): thus, tváṁ vásu devayaté vániṣṭhaḥ (RV.) thou art chief winner of wealth for the pious; tā́ sómaṁ somapā́tamā (RV.) they two are the greatest drinkers of soma.

f. The derivative in i from the (especially the reduplicated) root, in the older language: thus, babhrír vájram papíḥ sómaṁ dadír gā́ḥ (RV.) bearing the thunderbolt, drinking the soma, bestowing kine; yajñáṁ ātániḥ (RV.) extending the sacrifice.

g. Derivatives in uka, very frequently in the Brāhmaṇa language: thus, vatsā́ṅç ca ghā́tuko vṛ́kaḥ (AV.) and the wolf destroys his calves; véduko vā́so bhavati(TS.) he wins a garment; kā́mukā enaṁ stríyo bhavanti (MS.) the women fall in love with him.

h. Other cases are more sporadic: thus, derivatives in a, as índro dṛḍhā́ cid ārujáḥ (RV.) Indra breaks up even what is fast; nāi ’vā ’rhaḥ pāitṛkaṁ riktham(M.) by no means entitled to his father’s estate; — in atnu, as vīḍú cid ārujatnúbhiḥ (RV.) with the breakers of whatever is strong; — in atha, as yajáthāya devā́n (RV.) to make offering to the gods; — in ana, as taṁ nivāraṇe (MBh.) in restraining him; svamāṅsam iva bhojane (R.) as if in eating one’s own flesh; — inani, as samátsu turváṇiḥ pṛtanyū́n (RV.) overcoming foes in combats; — in ti, as ná táṁ dhūrtíḥ (RV.) there is no injuring him; — in van, asápaçcāddaghvā́ ’nnam bhavati (MS.) he does not come short of food; — in snu, as sthirā́ cin namayiṣṇavaḥ (RV.) bowing even firm things.